Problem of evil

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  • Created by: c.bravery
  • Created on: 13-04-16 13:59
Natural evil
Natural evil is the evil that originates independently of human actions, in disease and eartquakes etc.
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Moral evil
All evil that is caused deliberately by humans doing what they ought not to do.
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Rock of atheism
This is the main arguments from athiesm against theism that questions Gods existence with the presence of evil it is a problem for theists because it challenges Gods divine attributes.
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Logical problem - A priori
Epicurus was the first to notice that there was a problem - "either God cannot abolish evil or if he cannot then he is not omnipotent, if he will not, he is not omnibenevolent"Epicurus - J.L.Mackie inconsistent triad.
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Evidential problem - A posteriori
William Rowe - the existence of evil in the world is evidence against the existence of God - the case of Bambi - evil seems pointless and preventable.
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Augustine 354-430 AD
God made everything perfect without defect - he created everything perfect out of nothing (ex nihlo) - God cannot have created evil - evil is a lack of goodness (privatio boni) - vil came from the agents that have free will.
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Augustine part 2.
Adam and Eve were lead astray by Satan, human kind is not tainted with origiunal sin - Moral evil came from eating the forbidden fruit - Natural evil came about through loss of order in nature as a result of fallen angels eg Satan.
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Augustine part 3.
Both forms of evil are a result of bad human action - God is right not to intervene and put a stop to suffering because the punishment is justice for human sin and God is just - Humans who obey God will be saved and given eternal life.
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Strenghths of Augustine
A classical theistic response which is consistent with the Bible and its teachings - God is freed from direct responsibility - God choice of creating humans capable of choosing evil is legitimised as humans are free to choose good, salvation.
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Weaknesses of Augustine - Logical error
Logical Error - Schleirmacher - how can perfectly created world go wrong, if humans disobey God they must have had the knowledge of good and evil already.
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Weaknesses of Augustine - Scientific error
Scientific Error - It seems unlikely that humans were once perfect, but not naymore - the theory of evolution suggests that suffereing is essential for survival - God should have created the world differently.
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weaknesses of Auguatine - Moral error
Hell appears to be part of the design of the universe, if it is part of design God must have known the world would go wrong - this suggests a malicious God.
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St Irenaeus 130-202 AD
God is partly responsible for evil - humans are made in the image of God brought into the world as intelligent but immature beeings with the capacity of moral and spiritual perfection - genuine human perfection must be developed through free choice.
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St Irenaeus part 2.
God gave humans free will with the potential to disobey him - God did not make a perfect world because evil has a valueble part to play in Gods plan for humanity - freedom requires the possibility of choosing good as well as evil.
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St Irenaeus part 3.
There are no fallen angels - natural evil is a means to and it helps nurture humans to the likeness of God - suffereing must be endured in order to do so - evil enables us to understand good.
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St Irenaeus part 4.
evil and suffering will eventually be overcome and humanity will be in Gods likeness - in heaven everyone will have completed their development into Gods image.
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John Hicks development 1.
Humans had to be created imperfect - if God hadf made us perfect we would be robots that would automatically love, this love would be valueless - God was right to give us freedom to develop love for ourselves.
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John Hick development 2.
Humans had to be at an epistemic distance from God - eveil is part of our developmental process towards Gods likeness, if God was with us or had the same knowledge as us we wouldnt learn anything from the developmental process.
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John Hick development 3.
The natural world could not be a paradise - if it wasnt a paradise humans would not be free to choose because every human action would lead to happiness, and that would defeat the object of moving into Gods likeness.
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Strengths of Irenaeus
This world is the best possible world andf humans are able to develop the finest characteristics of life - In this world there are general laws of nature that allow science to fit into it - humans are pilgrims in a vale of soul making.
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Weaknesses of Irenaeus
Would it not have been easier for God to have given us longer earthly lives to make us perfect - Does the world need such intense human suffering like the holocaust to produce good - many people develop good qualities without suffering.
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More weaknesses
Why does the process of human development take so long, why not speed it up to reduce suffering - There is not hell - why do some poeple suffer more than others this seems unjust when children are involved.
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D.Z.Philips against Irenaeus
Love cannot be expressed through suffering.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

All evil that is caused deliberately by humans doing what they ought not to do.

Back

Moral evil

Card 3

Front

This is the main arguments from athiesm against theism that questions Gods existence with the presence of evil it is a problem for theists because it challenges Gods divine attributes.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Epicurus was the first to notice that there was a problem - "either God cannot abolish evil or if he cannot then he is not omnipotent, if he will not, he is not omnibenevolent"Epicurus - J.L.Mackie inconsistent triad.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

William Rowe - the existence of evil in the world is evidence against the existence of God - the case of Bambi - evil seems pointless and preventable.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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