energy, fats, carbs, proteins

  • Created by: eviebrad
  • Created on: 06-01-23 08:38
how is energy created
cannot be created or destroyed only converted one form to another
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types of energy used by human body
chemical, mechanical, electrical
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mechanical work
muscular contraction
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electrical work
maintaining ionic gradients across membranes
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chemical work
synthesis new macromolecules
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all energy becomes ..... eventually
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standard units of energy
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energy units in nutrition
kilocalories or calories
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energy obtained in humans from
from the oxidation macronutrients provided by food consumed
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1 kcal in mj
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1MJ in kcal
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energy from fat
9kcal / 37kj per gram
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alcohol calories
7 kcal/ 29kj
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energy stored in body in form of
fat glycogen protein
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protein used for energy
rarely, only in severe cases of starvation and other wasting conditions
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3 main components of energy expenditure
10% thermic effect of feeding, 15-30% energy expenditure physical activity, 60-70% basal metabolic rate
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positive energy balance
intake higher than output= weight gain
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negative energy balance
intake lower than output= weight loss
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negative energy balance over a long time
likely to be underweight, health risks of osteoporosis, infertility and heart failure
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positive energy balance over a long time
overweight, risks of cancer, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes
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energy balance maintained by
regulating energy intake, adjusting physical activity levels
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fats at room temperature
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oils at room temperature
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edible fats are
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solid and liquid state of fats depends on
degree of saturation and length of carbon chain
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is there a difference between energy value of solid and liquid fats
no - always 9kcal
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lipids composed of
carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
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lipids structure
glycerol and fatty acids
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what is glycerol
a poly hydric alcohol containing 3 carbons attached to a hydroxyl group
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fatty acid chain length
usually contain 2-24 carbons
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products of carbohydrate fermentation in the small intestine
acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid
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short chain fatty acids
4-8 carbons
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medium chain triglycerides
c10-c14 - well absorbed in small intestine
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medium chain triglycerides for patients
used for patients with bowel problems or recovering from malnutrition as they are absorbed directly into blood
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long chain fatty acids
c16 - c22 - essential fatty acids and marine oils
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degrees of saturation
saturated unsaturated and polyunsaturated
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trans fatty acids
functional groups positioned on opposite sides of the c=c bond
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cis fatty acids
functional groups positioned on same side of the c=c double bond
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full and partial hydrogenation
veg oils which have high proportion unsaturated fatty acids hydrogenated to make solids for use as margarine
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increases melting point so that fats become solid at room temp
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partially hydrogenated oils
contains trans fats, known to increase risk of cardiovascular disease
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oleic acid
c18:1, n-9
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linoleic acid
c18:2 n-6
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alpha - linoleic acid
c18:3 n-3
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fatty acid rancidity
deterioration of fats and oils leading to unpleasant odours and flavours
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hydrolytic rancidity
affects dairy foods can be caused by enzyme lipase
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oxidative rancidity
can be caused by contact with heat, light, oxygen and metals causes problems with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids
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3 stages of oxidation
initiation propagation termination
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reactivity of polyunsaturated fatty acids
highly reactive due to double bonds
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what is a free radical
chemical species with an unpaired electron
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free radicals created from
UV, x-rays, catalytic metals
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effect of free radicals
can cause cascade of damage to cell membranes, may cause cancers, atherosclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis
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vitamins C and E can scavenge free radicals
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food spoilage
also caused by free radicals
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visible sources dietary fat
butter margarine meat
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invisible sources dietary fat
cakes, biscuits, pastry, confectionary
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total fat intake
35% total energy intake
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saturated fatty acid intake
10% total energy intake
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polyunsaturated fatty acids intake
no more than 10% total energy intake
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essential fatty acid n-6 intake
more than 1% energy intake
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fatty acid n-3 intake
more than 0.2% energy intake
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trans fat energy intake
2% total energy intake
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fat-soluble nutrients
important for good health- vitamin A,K,E,D
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absorption of fat soluble vitamins
require fat
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fats increase bioavailability of what compounds
phytochemicals: lycopene in tomatoes and beta carotene in carrots
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polyunsaturated fatty acids include
omega-3 and omega-6
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role of mouth in lipid digestion
mechanical digestion: mixing with saliva, limited enzyme action
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role of stomach in lipid digestion
travel down oesophagus, mixing and churning, add gastric lipase, can tolerate low pH
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roll of small intestine in lipid digestion
emulsification with bile, larger droplets to small droplets, pancreatic lipase digests and micelles help absorb
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gall bladder
stores and secretes bile
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bile dispersed
watery parts of small intestine
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bile in small intestine
larger surface area for emulsification of lipids
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journey of micelles
through microvilli, enter epithelial
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fatty acids in lipid digestion
form triglycerides
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fatty globules combine with proteins to form
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chylomicrons inside where
Golgi apparatus
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chylomicrons extruded from
epithelial cell, enter lymph capillary
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transports chylomicrons away from intestine
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what are chylomicrons
type of lipoprotein, transports lipids from small intestine to blood stream
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structure of chylomicrons
triglycerides, embedded a-lipoproteins, phospholipids
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relating to presence of glucose in blood
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glycemic index
indication of how blood glucose levels change after ingesting different carbohydrate
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simple sugars, not broken down any further, glucose, fructose, galactose
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two monosaccharides
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disaccharide found in table sugar - glucose + fructose
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disaccharide found in milk - glucose + galactose
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disaccharide from breakdown of starch - glucose + glucose
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complex carbs
polysaccharides - over 1000 glucose units
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complex carbs in animals
glycogen stored in muscle and liver
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complex carbs in plants
starches and fibres
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digestible by humans - amylopectin and amylose
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straight chain starch in humans
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branched chain starch in humans
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indigestible by humans, pectins and cellulose
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energy from carbs
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functions of carbs
glucose/ insulin response, prevent high fat intakes, reduce risk of cardiovascular disease, prevent ketosis, carbohydrate foods are filling so have high satiety
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types of sugars
intrinsic, extrinsic, milk sugar
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intrinsic sugars
those which are an integral part of cell structure
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extrinsic sugars
not an integral part of cell structure, added to foods by manufacturer, cook, consumer
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milk sugar
not intrinsic
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non-milk sugar
can cause health problems, aka free sugars, also includes honey and syrups
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main sources free sugars
cakes, biscuits, puddings, breakfast cereals
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digestion of carbs in mouth
starch to maltose by salivary amylase
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carb digestion in stomach
amylase denatured by stomach acid no further digestion
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pancreas in carb digestion
pancreatic amylase breaks down starch to maltose in small intestine
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small intestine in carb digestion
enzymes in wall of small intestine break down disaccharides to monosaccharides
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absorption of glucose, fructose and galactose
into blood, taken to liver via portal vein
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large intestine role in carb digestion
viscous fibre is fermented into acid and gases by bacteria
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role of rectum and anus during digestion of carbs
non fermentable fibres escapes digestion and is excreted in the faeces
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high blood glucose
pancreas releases insulin, glucose transported into cells, conversion of glucose into glycogen
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low blood glucose
pancreas releases glucagon, breakdown glycogen into glucose, increase gluconeogenesis
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free sugar intake
should not exceed 5%
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glycemic index
overall effect of carbs on blood glucose levels
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low GI
absorbed more slowly
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low GI foods
0-55, high satiety, maintain blood glucose levels
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moderate GI foods
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high GI foods
70 and above - does not travel through entire GI tract, low satiety
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dietary fibre
edible parts of plants that are not broken down or absorbed by small intestine
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non-starch polysaccharides
cellulose, pectins, gums, mucilage, chitin
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insoluble non starch polysaccharides
chitin and cellulose
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soluble non starch polysaccharides
pectins gums mucilages
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widely distributed in cereals and all plant foods
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mainly fruit and veg
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plants used as food additives
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ispaghula - seed, psyllium husk
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mushrooms and fungi
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NSPs have 4 major effects on gastrointestinal activity
1. slow gastrointestinal absorption, 2. affect reabsorption/plasma cholesterol levels, 3. undergo fermentation in the colon, 4. increase faecal weight
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rate of intestinal absorption
high fibre foods encourage mastication and stimulate secretion of digestive juices
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soluble non-starch polysaccharides
cause increase in viscosity of stomach contents, delaying gastric emptying
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some non starch polysaccharides
eg pectin can bind to fe, ca, zn, mg, leading to decreased bioavailability
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non starch polysaccharides affect the reabsorption of bile acids and therefore plasma cholesterol levels
fibre can slow the reabsorption of bile acids in the ileum as they are bound and trapped by dietary fibre, leads to a decrease in the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids as they are lost in the faeces. lowers plasma cholesterol as cholesterol used to
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bile produced
produced from breakdown of cholesterol in the liver
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bile stored
in gall bladder and secreted into intestine when food ingested
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bile in the faeces
small amount of bile excreted
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bile absorbed
normally most bile absorbed by intestines and returned to liver for recycling
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fermentation in the colon
fibre enters colon, fermented by bacteria, carbohydrate enters, short chain fatty absorbed, bacterial matter and unfermented carbohydrate to faeces: heat, ch2, h2 and co2
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wheat bran on faecal weight
increases faecal weight due to its unfermented residue bound to water
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oat bran affect on faecal weight
increases faecal weight due to increase in bacterial bulk following fermentation
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high fibre diet recommended
decreases exposure to carcinogens from microbial decomposition, bile salts decrease constipation, decrease intra colon pressure during defaecation
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resistant starch
resists digestion to its component sugar glucose in small intestine, passes unchanged to large intestine
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4 types resistant starch
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resistant starch 1
contained within cell walls , wholegrain, legumes
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resistant starch 2
resistant starch granules present in raw foods
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resistant starch 3
retrograded starch in food modified by processing eg bread
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resistant starch 4
manufactured modified starch
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function of resistant starch
fermented in colon, release short chain fatty acids, increase faecal weight, also reduces glycemic index of foods
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fibre delays gastric emptying
increase satiety, short term reduction in hunger, decrease obesity and overweight
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fibre less energy dense
can reduce total energy intake
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soluble NSPs decrease absorption bile acids
lower plasma cholesterol reduce risk coronary heart disease
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fermentation in the colon
short chain fatty acids effects faecal pH levels and proliferation of colonic cells, lowers risk colorectal cancer
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slowed intestinal absorption
resistant starch not broken down, lower blood glucose and insulin response, lowers risk of type 2 diabetes
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dietary fibre
too bulky for children, increase gas production decrease availability of minerals
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recommended fibre intake
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essential amino acids
valine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, lysine, histidine, methionine, threonine
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two amino acids joined by
a peptide bond, loss of water
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primary structure of proteins
sequence of chain of amino acids
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secondly structure proteins
hydrogen bonding of the peptide backbone, causes amino acids to fold into a repeating pattern
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tertiary protein structure
3D folding pattern of a protein due to side chain interactions
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quaternary structure
protein consisting of more than one polypeptide chain
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protein required for
normal growth and maintenance of good health
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second most abundant chemical compound in the body after water
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proportion of protein in man
approx 16% of man weighing 70kg= 11kg
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protein in muscle
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protein in skin
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protein in blood
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50% of body proteins comprised of 4 proteins
collagen, haemoglobin, myosin and actin
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functions of proteins
required for growth, repair, transport, immune system, enzymes, hormones, antibodies, receptors, neurotransmitters, transport carriers
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structural function of proteins
approx 50% of bodys proteins, eg skin, muscle
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transport proteins
transport carriers in blood and body fluids eg haemoglobin and lipoproteins
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hormonal proteins
some hormones are proteins or contain peptide or amino acid chains
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enzymes are proteins
regulate biochemical mechanisms in cells and tissues, intracellular and extracellular
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immune functions
antibodies involved with inflammation
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animal protein types
fibrous and globular
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animal fibrous type proteins
insoluble, elastic proteins forming structural part of tissues
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animal fibrous protein samples and sources
keratin in hair, collagen in connective tissue, elastin in tendons and arteries, myosin in muscles
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globular animal proteins
relatively soluble, many food proteins, also part of fluids of all body cells
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examples and sources of globular proteins
enzymes, protein hormones, albumins and globulins in the blood, casein in milk, albumin in egg white
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types of proteins in plants
glutelins and prolamines
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glutelin plant proteins
insoluble in neutral conditions, soluble in acids and alkalis, storage proteins
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glutelines plant proteins examples and sources
glutenin in wheat, oryzenin in rice
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prolamines plant proteins
insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol, storage proteins
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prolamines plant protein examples and sources
gliadin in wheat and zein in maize
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amino acids in eukaryotes
20 are found
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amino acids
regulate all cellular processes and virtually all chemical reactions in living organisms
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essential amino acids
histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, valine
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what is a peptide
2-50 amino acids joined together by a peptide link
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a peptide link
is formed when the amino group of one amino acid reacts with acidic group of an adjacent amino acid
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peptide bond
formed by a condensation, molecule of water is eliminated during the formation of the link
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sources of muscle proteins
actin and myosin
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sources of connective tissue proteins
collage, elastin, gelatin
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protein in eggs
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protein in milk
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good plant sources of protein
lentils tofu nuts beans
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animal proteins
high biological value contains all essential amino acids
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low biological value proteins
proteins that have a limiting amino acid
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limiting amino acids
amino acids present at a low concentration
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proteins in wheat/ rice
deficient in lysine but rich in methionine
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beans and pulses
deficient in methionine
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new born infants
can absorb some proteins from their mothers milk, including antibodies which provide protection from infection
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diseases associated with protein energy malnutrition
marasmus and kwashiorkor
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severe wasting due to chronic deprivation of energy intake to meet requirements
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characterised by oedema affects only young children
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catabolic illness
burn injuries, cancer, trauma, sepsis, major injury , muscle protein catabolised to provide amino acids for synthesis of new cells and proteins for an immune response as well as energy
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males 19-50 protein RNI
55.5 grams per day
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females 19-50 yrs protein RNI
45 grams per day
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types of energy used by human body


chemical, mechanical, electrical

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mechanical work


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electrical work


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Card 5


chemical work


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