Preparations of Salts

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How to prepare soluble SPA Salts (Sodium, Potassium, Ammonium)
Neutralization Reaction (acid + alkali = salt + water)
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Procedure of Neutralization Reaction?
1. Titration Method 2. Evaporate to saturate salt solution 3. Cool to allow crystallization 4. Filter, wash, dry the crystals
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Examples of Soluble SPA Salts
Ammonia Acid NH3 , Sodium Hydroxide NaOH , Potassium Hydroxide KOH
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3 reactions involving Soluble Non-SPA Salt
Acid + Metal = Salt + Hydrogen , Acid + Base = Salt + Water, Acid + Metal Carbonate = Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide
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Acid + Metal = Salt + Hydrogen - Precaution
1. Avoid using nitric acid 2. Less reactive metals 3. Very Reactive Metals
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Why avoid using nitric acid?
It can act as an oxidising agent, giving complicated mixture of products
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Why don't use less reactive metals?
They do not react with dilute acids.
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Why not very reactive metals?
Sodium and Potassium react very vigorously and may explode.
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Step 1 - 3 reactions involving Soluble Non-SPA Salt
Excess Solid (Metal, Metal Oxide, Metal Hydroxide or Metal Carbonate) is added, while stirring, into a fixed volume of hot dilute acid. The remaining solid is removed by filtration.
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Step 2 - 3 reactions involving Soluble Non-SPA Salt
The filtrate is evaporated to produce a saturated salt solution.
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Step 3 - 3 reactions involving Soluble Non-SPA Salt
The hot saturated salt solution is cooled for crystallisation to occur.
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Step 4 - 3 reactions involving Soluble Non-SPA Salt
The crystals formed are filtered out, washed and dried.
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Last Step - 3 reactions involving Soluble Non-SPA Salt
Recrystallisation is carried out to obtain pure crystals of the salt.
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How to prepare insoluble salts?
An insoluble salt can be prepared by a precipitation method through a double decomposition reaction.
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The first and second solutions of the double decomposition reaction much contain the _____ and _____ of the insoluble salt.
Anion, Cation
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On the safe side, examination wise,....
Choose a nitrate salt as the cation and choose a sodium or potassium salt to provide the required anion.
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Example of a 'SPA' salt reaction
2KOH + H2SO4 --> K2SO4 + 2H2O
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Example of a non-'SPA' salt reaction
MgCO3 + H2SO4 --> MgSO4 + H2O + CO2
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Example of a double decomposition reaction
Pb(NO3)2 + 2KI --> PbI2 + 2KNO3
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Procedure of Neutralization Reaction?

Back

1. Titration Method 2. Evaporate to saturate salt solution 3. Cool to allow crystallization 4. Filter, wash, dry the crystals

Card 3

Front

Examples of Soluble SPA Salts

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

3 reactions involving Soluble Non-SPA Salt

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Acid + Metal = Salt + Hydrogen - Precaution

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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