Poverty and Development

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How does the United Nations define absolute poverty?
A condition characterised by severe deprivation of basic human needs, including food, safe water, sanitation, health, shelter, education and information. Depends on both income and access to services.
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How does the World Bank define absolute poverty?
Living on less than $1.25 a day.
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What is relative poverty?
A standard that is defined in terms of the society in which an individual lives - it therefore differs between countries. Relative poverty lines are income-related.
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What is the UK relative poverty line?
60% of median income.
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What do Human Poverty Indexes 1 and 2 take into account?
Deprivation of longevity, deprivation of knowledge and deprivation of decent living standards. HPI-2 also considers social exclusion by looking at level of unemployment.
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What does the Human Development Index take into account and when was in published?
Takes into account life expectancy, average years of schooling and GNI per capita. Published in 1990.
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What is Gross Domestic Product?
The monetary value of all finished goods and services produced within a country's borders (in a year).
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What is Gross National Product?
The monetary value of all finished goods and services produced/supplied by the citizens of a country; based on location of ownership as opposed to location of production (which GDP is based on).
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What is the Gini-coefficient?
Measures the extent to which the distribution of income among individuals or households deviated from a perfectly equal distribution. 0 represents perfect equality, whilst 100 implies perfect inequality.
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When was the Brandt Line first theorised and who by?
1980, by Willy Brandt.
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Which countries in the Southern hemisphere are included in the global North? Give 2.
Australia and New Zealand.
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Which regions partially/fully located in the Northern hemisphere are included in the global South? Give 2.
South Asia and North Africa.
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Give 3 arguments that the North-South divide still exists.
Originated due to colonialism, and neocolonialism maintains it by committing developing nations to dependency. Richest fifth of global pop own 80% of income and poorest fifth own 1% of income. All of the G7 nations are in the Northern hemisphere.
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Give 3 arguments that the North-South divide is an outdated concept.
Since collapse of USSR, many former communist states in North became underdeveloped-e.g.Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan. Industrialisation of Asian economies means they have joined ranks of Northern high-income states. Central/S America and SE Asia-good HDI.
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Give 4 key trends in changing patterns of inequality.
Poverty has a female face. Global economic crisis has impacted global South most severely. Within-country inequality increasing due to growth of corporate power. Africa is growing.
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What is the gender difference in primary education in Pakistan?
50% of boys educated at this level. 30% of girls educated at this level.
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What percentage of malnourished children are female?
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Why has the global financial crisis impacted the South most?
As exports and foreign direct investment threaten to disappear, developing states' governments have smaller tax revenues and have to dramatically reduce spending in order to stay afloat. Long-term implications for education, health and employment.
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How many of the world's fastest-growing economies of 2014 were in sub-Saharan Africa?
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What has the region's average GDP growth rate averaged per annum for the last decade?
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Give an example of how growth in Africa has not necessarily benefitted North African states.
Egypt's growth fell by 3.3% to below 2% in 2011.
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What is 'dependency theory' and where is it on the political spectrum?
Left-wing/neo-Marxist. Suggests that dependency/underdevelopment are imposed on poor states and maintained for benefit of wealthy states and regions.
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What is an extension of dependency theory and who developed it?
'World-systems theory' - the idea that 'core' areas are characterised by high wages and technology and 'peripheral' areas are characterised by low wages, basic technology and simple production. Developed by Wallerstein.
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What are five key themes of the 'alternative' approach to development?
Humanistic view of poverty emphasising opportunity, empowerment+freedom. Self-reliance rather than dependence on external. Ecological balance and sustainability. Social and cultural inclusion. Local control and community action through democratic particip
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Where does the 'alternative' approach to development belong on the political spectrum and when did it begin to gain popularity?
Centre-left/traditional social liberalism. Increased in prominence since 1980s as support for pro-growth strategies has declined.
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How does the 'orthodox' approach to development define poverty, and how does it claim poverty should be reduced?
Poverty is a lack or resources or income to satisfy basic material needs (first level of Maslov's pyramid). Believe poverty should reduced by stimulating economic growth using the free-market system.
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What are the five stages of Rostow's model of economic modernisation?
Traditional societies. Preconditions for take-off. Take-off. Drive to maturity. High-mass consumption.
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Where do the orthodox approach to development and modernisation theory belong on the political spectrum?
Right-wing/economic liberalism.
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Give three arguments that globalisation has had a positive impact in reducing poverty and inequality.
Globalisation has levelled the competitive playing field, as shown by the rise of NICs that focused on exports. TNCs bring a range of benefits. The poor become less poor - this is more important than overall inequality.
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Give three arguments that globalisation has not reduced poverty and inequality.
A game of winners and losers - core-periphery model. Growing rural poverty and growing rural-urban disparities. Within-country inequality has grown due to an increase in corporate power.
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What proportion of people living on less than $1 a day live in rural areas?
Three quarters.
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What are the three types of international aid?
Multilateral aid, bilateral aid and emergency aid.
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Give three advantages of debt relief.
Money spent on debt service could be spent on social provision/development projects-growth stunted. Growth of HIPCs will benefit developed world-will buy exports and absorb less in aid. Debt forces focus on exports and encourages primary product dependenc
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Give three disadvantages of debt relief.
Moral hazard-may encourage relieved countries to built up debt again, or less indebted nations to worsen their situations. Merely a way of neocolonial powers forcing developing nations to adopt SAPs. If given to corrupt govs, aid may not trickle down.
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Give four arguments in favour of trade over aid.
Long-term dev.-more predictable than aid. States can retain dignity-aid can damage image. Trade allows fair impression of global order - aid fosters dependency culture. Aid money often misspent-used for 'grand' but unhelpful soft-power projects.
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How many are dependent on the World Food Programme in Swaziland and what impact has this had?
70% - since struggled to find a voice on world stage.
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Give four arguments in favour of aid over trade.
Aid linked to need-not ability to trade. Trade opps limited by imbalances; EU/ US protectionism. Exposing states to glob. econ. allows flood of cheap imports-local industries collapse, dependency on 'cash crops'. Trade needs wider infrastructure.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


How does the World Bank define absolute poverty?


Living on less than $1.25 a day.

Card 3


What is relative poverty?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is the UK relative poverty line?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What do Human Poverty Indexes 1 and 2 take into account?


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