Population Change

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World Population Growth Summary
Population growth was slow until the start of the 19th century. It took thousands of years to reach 1 billion (1804). It took 123 years to reach 2 billion, 33 years to reach 3 billion, by 1999 we had hit 6 billion. Predicted 2050: 9.5 billion.
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Natural Increase
When the birth rate is higher than the death rate.
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Natural Decrease
When the death rate is higher than the birth rate.
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Social factors affecting birth rate
Availability of family planning, quality of education available for women, social standards (e.g. it used to be normal to have more than five children, and now it is closer to two).
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Economic factors affecting birth rate
Children work for the family to earn money, either in the fields or in a factory. Parents may also rely on their children in old age.
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Political factors affecting birth rate
Governments not providing family planning and religious governments not legalising the sale of contraceptives (e.g. in a catholic country).
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Demographic Transition Model
A graph showing the different stages of population development.
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DTM Stage one
Birth rate: high Death rate: high Natural increase: low Countries: None, all known populations have progressed.
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DTM Stage two
Birth rate: high Death rate: decreasing Natural increase: increasing Countries: LEDCs, many of which are in Africa.
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DTM Stage three
Birth rate: decreasing Death rate: low Natural increase: decreasing Countries: south and east Asia, Brazil and Mexico.
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DTM Stage four
Birth rate: low Death rate: low Natural increase: low Countries: north America, Australasia, Japan and many European countries.
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DTM Stage five
Birth rate: low Death rate: low Natural increase: negative Countries: Germany and France.
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Factors leading to a low birth rate
Small families are socially acceptable, agriculture becoming mechanised, gender equality, national population policy and free family planning advice.
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Growing pains: rural areas
Overgrazing, over-cultivation, increased pollution, deforestation, land degradation, shortages of clean water and lack of basic services (sanitation, schools etc.).
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Growing pains: urban areas
Overcrowding, development of shanty towns, traffic congestion, increased pollution and inadequate public services.
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Growing pains: the country as a whole
Resource shortages (e.g. like water in the countries around the Nile) unemployment, under-employment, lack of money, low living standards, international debts, unstable government and increased tension between different groups.
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China's one child policy, 1979
Couples who had one child received economic rewards and welfare benefits, whilst those with more were fined (with few exceptions). China's population is now 300 million lower than predicted.
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Problems with the one child policy
Girls are valued more, and so many female babies were either terminated or put up for adoption. Tension between men. Single children bearing the brunt of an ageing population and a shortage of workers in the future.
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France's pro-natal policy
Cash incentive of £675 a month for a mother to stay off work after her third child. The 'carte famille nombreuse' giving reductions on train fares. Income tax based on the more children the less tax to pay. Three years paid pa- or maternity leave.
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Ageing population - the UK
More state pensions need to be paid, increased strain on the NHS and smaller working population (less taxes).
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Migration: push factors
Harsh climate, inaccessibility, divorce, ill health, unemployment, poverty, shortage of housing, civil war/war or ethnic cleansing.
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Migration: pull factors
Cheaper land, less hazards, marriage and family ties, more employment opportunities, higher wages, better lifestyle and personal security.
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European Union
In 2004, the EU enlarged to allow ten more low-income countries to work and travel in the EU.
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Migration to the UK
Around 1.8 million migrants from non-EU countries, the top being Morocco.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

When the birth rate is higher than the death rate.

Back

Natural Increase

Card 3

Front

When the death rate is higher than the birth rate.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Availability of family planning, quality of education available for women, social standards (e.g. it used to be normal to have more than five children, and now it is closer to two).

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Children work for the family to earn money, either in the fields or in a factory. Parents may also rely on their children in old age.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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