Polysacharrides

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  • Created by: zoolouise
  • Created on: 08-03-16 14:19
What are polysaccharides made up of?
Many monosaccharides joined together.
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What's the difference between sugars and polymers?
Sugars are small, soluble and reactive but polymers are large, insoluble and unreactive molecules.
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Why do polymers play a key role in storage?
They won't dissolve or move around. Their insolubility means that they wont' affect the osmotic balance of cells. They have roles in structural support.
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What's the reaction to make polysaccharides?
A condensation reaction.
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What's the process of breaking polysaccharides down?
Polysaccharides are usually broken down into disaccharides, and then monosaccharides.
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What is starch a polymer of?
Starch is a polymer of Alpha Glucose molecules joined with 1,4 glycosidic bonds.
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Where is Starch stored?
Starch is stored in plants as a future energy source, it's stored in plant cells as amyloplasts.
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What are amyloplasts made up of?
They are made up of amylose, a linear polymer which coils into a helix and forms the outside of the amyloplast. They're also made up of amylopectin which is a branched polymer and is at the core of the amyloplast.
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Why is starch an ideal storage molecule?
It is very compact, it doesn't take up much space and it's insoluble so has no osmotic effect on cells.
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What is Glycogen a polymer of?
Glycogen is a polymer of Alpha Glucose molecules joined by both 1,4 and 1,6 glycosidic bonds.
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Where is Glycogen stored?
It is stored in animals as a future energy source. It's stored in the liver, muscles and brain.
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What's the structure of Glycogen?
The structure of Glycogen is similar to amylopectin, but the branches are longer and more frequent so it can be broken down extremely rapidly. There are many branch ends for the enzyme to act on at once.
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What is Cellulose a polymer of?
Cellulose is a polymer of Beta Glucose molecules joined by both 1,4 glycosidic bonds.
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What is Cellulose?
A structural polysaccharide which is found in plants.
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What's the arrangement of Glucose molecules in Cellulose?
Each Glucose molecule is attached to the polymer chain at 180 to it's neighbour. This makes a cellulose chain straight rather than coiled and it's unbranched.
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What do the straight chains in Cellulose form?
The straight chains form hydrogen bond cross-links with other chains, through attraction between the hydroxyl groups, this makes cellulose strong and it therefore has a structural role.
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What do groups of chains in Cellulose form?
Groups of chains together form microfibrils, it's these that allow cellulose to act as a major strengthening component of plant cell walls, it prevents plant cells from bursting.
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Why don't humans use Cellulose as an energy source?
They do not produce an enzyme to digest it.
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What does Cellulose do in the human body?
It remains undigested in the gut and acts as a dietary fibre. It prevents constipation and slows the absorption of other carbohydrates.
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What is Chitin?
Chitin is a polymer which is very similar to cellulose, however it has amino acids added to it to form a mucopolysaccharide.
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What are some properties of Chitin?
It is strong, waterproof and lightweight and forms the exoskeleton of insects. e.g the carapace of a beetle.
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What does Chitin do in the human body?
It remains undigested in the gut and acts as a dietary fibre. It prevents constipation and slows the absorption of other carbohydrates.
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What is polysaccharide breakdown?
It is a reaction known as hydrolysis, it requires water.
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Where does polysaccharide breakdown occur?
It occurs in the human gut, as well as in the liver and muscle cells.
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Card 2

Front

What's the difference between sugars and polymers?

Back

Sugars are small, soluble and reactive but polymers are large, insoluble and unreactive molecules.

Card 3

Front

Why do polymers play a key role in storage?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What's the reaction to make polysaccharides?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What's the process of breaking polysaccharides down?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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