Political parties

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  • Created by: KW
  • Created on: 26-11-13 19:20
Political spectrum
A device by which different political standpoints can be mapped across one axis or more as a way of demonstrating their ideological position in relation to one another.
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Authoritarian
In the political sense, describing any approach that favours strict obedience to the authority of the state.
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Libertarian
Any approach that favours civil liberties and the rights of the individual over the authority of the state. Generally believe that society as a whole is best served by allowing citizens to operate relatively freely from state intervention.
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Paternalism
Where power and authority are held centrally but the state acts benevolently, caring for neediest. Paternalism is said to be a key character of traditional one-nation conservatism.
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Conservatism
A loose ideology, favouring a pragmatic approach to dealing with problems, while seeking to preserve the status quo. Can be argued not an ideology because it looks to work with and improve upon what exists already as opposed to building from ground
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Monetarism
An economic theory advocating controlling the money supply as a means of keeping inflation in check.
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Postwar consensus
Broad agreement between Labour and Conservative over domestic and foreign policy that emerged after second world war.
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Adversarial policies (or 'yah-boo' politics)
The instinctive antagonism between the two Westminster parties. The term was used by Professor S E Finer and commonly applied to UK politics from the 1970s.
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Neo- liberalism
A political ideology closely related to classical liberalism. Stress the importance of free market, individual rights and limited government. In UK context, closely associated with Thatcherism.
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Thatcherism
An ideological approach combining free market, neo liberal economic policy with a more orthodox conservative social policy in areas such as family and law and order. Conservatie Party 1980s and 90s, Sir Keith Joseph and Adam Smith Institute.
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Socialism
Advocates greater equality and the redistribution of wealth. Socialists are suspicious of capitalism. Favour greater government intervention, both in economic policy and in social policy. Associated with Labour party until Tony Blair .
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Social democracy
Accepts the basic premise of capitalism, whilst advocating a more equitable distribution of wealth along the lines favoured by all socialists.
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Old Labour
Characterising the Labour party prior to modernisation programme started byNeil Kinnock 1983, completed by Tony Blair. Historic commitment to socialism, links with socialist societies, trade unions and old working class.
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New Labour
Party emerged to fight 1997 election. Blair first used term in 1994. Modernisation started 1983. Less powerful role for trade unions and rebranding to appeal to middle class voters.
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Triangulation
The process of melding together core Labour party principles and values such as the party's commitment to greater social justice with the lessons learned from Thatcherism. Closely associated with New Labour and the notion of a Third way.
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Third way
An ideological position said to exist between conventional socialism and mainstream capitalism, closely associated with Tony Blair and New Labour, and also referred to as the 'middle way'.
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Social justice
The goal of greater equality of outcome, as opposed to equality of opportunity alone. Achieved through progressive taxation and other forms of wealth distribution. The idea is closely associated with the Labour Party and with other left parties .
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Gang of Four
Left labour in 1981 and formed Social Democratic Party- Bill Rodgers, Roy Jenkins, Shirley Williams and David Owen. They lacked confidence in leader Michael Foot.
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SDP- Liberal Alliance
The electoral alliance between the Liberal Party and the Social Demoncratic Party in 1983. Merged to become the Liberal Democrats.
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Liberalism
A political ideology associated with notions of personal liberty, toleration and limited government. It is often subdivided into two separate strands.
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Classical liberalism
Early form favouring minimal state intervention emerged in 19th century. Stressed importance of freedom, toleration and equality.
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Progressive or new liberalism
A more compassionate form of liberalism that saw the need for some regulation of the market as well as the provision of basic welfare. Emphasis on reform, individual rights and a mixed economy provides ideological foundation for Liberal Democrats.
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Mandate
The right of the governing party to pursue the policies it sets out in its general election manifesto. The doctrine of the mandate gives the governing party authority to pursue its stated policies, but it does not require it to do so
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

In the political sense, describing any approach that favours strict obedience to the authority of the state.

Back

Authoritarian

Card 3

Front

Any approach that favours civil liberties and the rights of the individual over the authority of the state. Generally believe that society as a whole is best served by allowing citizens to operate relatively freely from state intervention.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Where power and authority are held centrally but the state acts benevolently, caring for neediest. Paternalism is said to be a key character of traditional one-nation conservatism.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A loose ideology, favouring a pragmatic approach to dealing with problems, while seeking to preserve the status quo. Can be argued not an ideology because it looks to work with and improve upon what exists already as opposed to building from ground

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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