Plate tectonics

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What is the lithosphere made out of ?
solid rock it is the upper mantle and the crust
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what is the asthenosphere?
The upper mantle which is semi molten
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What are the 4 features of the oceanic crust ?
denser , newer and thinner + made of basalt
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What are the 4 features of the continental crust?
older , thicker , less dense + made of granite
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Which plate is submerged and why ?
Oceanic as it is more dense
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What does decreasing pressure do to the melting point
reduces the melting point
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What is the difference between a natural hazard and a natural process ?
a natural hazard is a threat to life/property but a process may not be
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Describe a divergent (constructive) plate boundary
2 plates moving apart , new material is erupted to create new land
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Describe a transform (conservative) plate boundary
2 plates are sliding past each other almost parallel
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Name the 3 types of convergent (destructive) plate boundaries
continental-continental , continental-oceanic , oceanic-oceanic
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Which boundary forms fold mountains ?
convergent continental-continental
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Give an example of a landform on a transform boundary
San Andreas fault in San Francisco
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Name the 3 processes volcanoes are formed by
subduction , rifting + hotspots
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What geological evidence was there for the theory of plate tectonics ?
South America and Africa appear to fit together + Rocks of the same age and type were found on Brazil and South Africa
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What biological evidence was there for plate tectonics theory?
Marsupials only found in Australia that broke away from the super continent , this meant a loss of predators
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What is the name given to the one super continent ?
Pangea
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What climatic evidence supported the theory of plate tectonics ?
Similar coal deposits in North America and the UK
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What is a hotspot?
A mantle plume breaching the Earth's crust in the middle of a tectonic plate
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Which is stationary the hotspot or the plate ?
The hotspot only the plate is moving
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What is the Benioff zone?
Where earthquakes occur deep in the crust. It is where the oceanic crust begins to melt
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On a oceanic-oceanic convergent plate boundary what landforms occur ?
trenches and island arcs
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Which plate will be subducted on oceanic-oceanic convergent boundary?
the older oceanic plate as it will be denser
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Name an example of a landform on a collision zone
The Himalayas . The Indo-Australian and Eurasian plate collided
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Define anticlyne
when something gets lifted up
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Define Syncline
when something gets pushed down
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Define Geosyncline
trough in the crust where sediment accumulates
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Define Isostatic lift
Uplift of a land mass resulting from a tectonic process
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An example of young fold mountains are ...
the Himalayas ( 30-40m years old)
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An example of old fold mountains are ...
the Pennines ( over 40m years old )
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Name a country that was created in a collision zone
New Zealand
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Name the features of basaltic lava
low viscosity, hotter , less silica, shallow sided volcanoes formed
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Name the features of andisitic lava
high viscosity, cooler , more silica , steep sided volcanoes formed
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What are extrusive landforms ?
when lava and other material reaches the surface
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What are intrusive landforms?
material injected into the crust
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What are Nuee Ardentes ?
Fast moving clouds eg Nevado de Ruiz
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What is Tephra ?
Fragments of different sized rocks
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What is Lapilli?
Small stones
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What is a Geyser? (minor extrusive)
minor extrusive landform.Water in the lower crust is heated by rocks to steam. Pressure increases and the steam and water explodes on to the surface
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What is a Furnarole ? ( minor extrusive)
Super heated water turns to steam as its pressure drops it emerges fro the ground. Not explosive
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What are Mud volcanoes ? (minor extrusive)
Hot water mixes with mus and surface deposits
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What is a Solfatara ? (minor extrusive)
Created when gases mainly sulphur escape to the surface
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What is a Batholith?
below the surface , large amount of magma solidifies slowly due to being around hot rocks. Large crystals form
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What is a Dyke?
Intrusive. Vertical intrusion with horizontal cooling cracks. Cools rapidly as rock is cold
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What is a Sill ?
Intrusive. Horizontal intrusion along a bedding plane with vertical cooling cracks. cools rapidly
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How are volcanoes measured ?
the VEI Volcanic expolosivity index
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Why do people live in hazardous areas ?
inertia. lack of knowledge. nowhere else to go. choice of fertile farmland or tourist attractions
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Methods of volcano prevention
prediction(mapping). Lava diversions. Education. Shelters
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

what is the asthenosphere?

Back

The upper mantle which is semi molten

Card 3

Front

What are the 4 features of the oceanic crust ?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the 4 features of the continental crust?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Which plate is submerged and why ?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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