Physiology of Human Cells Topic 1

  • Created by: saraht83
  • Created on: 07-11-16 10:25
The study of how living organisms work
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Interested in function and how things work together
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Epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous
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Cardiovascular System
Transport of oxygen and nutrients to cells and carbon dioxide and waste away from cells
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Respiratory System
Introduces oxygen and expels carbon dioxide
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Digestive System
Processes food and combines with oxygen to produce energy
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Renal System
Expels metabolic waste
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Reproductive System
Allows for mating and production of offspring
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Musculo-skeletal System
Involves muscles and skeleton
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Nervous System
Signals to make muscles expand and contract
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Endocrine System
Chemicals which control behaviour
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Immune System
Protects from illness and infection
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Claude Bernard
Came up with the idea of homeostasis
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Walter Cannon
Came up with the word homeostasis
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Cellular Homeostasis
Intracellular fluid composition
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Organismal Homeostasis
Extracellular fluid composition
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Occurs when extracellular potassium ion concentration is too high
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Negative Feedback
Achieves homeostasis, requires a sensor, a set point and an effector.
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Positive Feedback
Increases deviation from the reference point and causes a vicious cycle
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Contains DNA
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Energy generation
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Endoplasmic Reticulum
Synthesis and transport of membrane proteins and lipids
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Golgi Apparatus
Synthesis and packaging of secretory molecules
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Hydrophilic Head
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Hydrophobic Tail
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Anaerobic Metabolism (Glycolysis)
Glucose becomes glucose-6-phosphate which becomes 2 pyruvate and 2 ATP, occurs in the cytoplasm
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Aerobic Metabolism (Oxidative Phosphorylation)
H2O formed from H from the Kreb's Cycle and O2, generates 38 ATP in the mitochondria
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Transport Proteins
Ion channel and carrier for hydrophillic molecules and ions
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Ion Channels
Aqueous pores which move inorganic ions across the membrane, high capacity (10^8 ions/s) and highly selective
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Carrier Proteins
Bind substance and undergo a conformational change to deliver it across the membrane, low capacity (10^2/10^3 molecules/s) and highly selective
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Gated Channels
Usually closed, open in response to chemical or mechanical or electrical signals
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Passive Diffusion
No transport protein involved
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Facilitated Diffusion
Transport protein involved
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Active Transport
Transport against the concentration gradient
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Electrochemical Gradient
Balance of forces between the concentration gradient and the electrical gradient
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Equilibrium Potential
No net transport
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Carrier protein carries one type of molecule
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Carrier protein carries more than one type of molecule
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Carrier protein carries more than one type of molecule in opposing directions
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Sodium Ions
Extracellular concentration 145, intracellular concentration 15
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Potassium Ions
Extracellular concentration 5, intracellular concentration 150
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Calcium Ions
Extracelluar concentration 1, intracellular concentration 0.0001
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Chloride Ions
Extracellular concentration 108, intracellular concentration 10
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Na/K ATPase
Sodium potassium pump, uses ATP hydrolysis to pump out 3 sodium and in 2 potassium creating a negative membrane potential
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Osmotic Pressure
Driving force of osmosis, determined by the number of particles in solution
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Extracellular Osmolarity
Depends on inorganic ions
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Intracellular Osmolarity
Depends on inorganic ions and membrane impermeant molecules
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Regulatory Mechanisms pHi
Sodium/hydrogen exchange, chloride/HCO3 exchange and sodium-HCO3 co-transport
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Calcium ATPase
Pumps calcium ions into the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria to be released in response to signals, or pumps calcium ions out of the cell
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Sodium/Calcium Exchanger
Calcium pumped out of cell and sodium pumped into cell down electrochemical gradient
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Resting Membrane Potential
Mainly determined by potassium equilibrium potential, -70mV
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Voltage-Gated Ion Channel
Opened or closed depending on polarisation or depolarisation of the cell
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Ligand-Gated Ion Channel
Chemical binds causing conformational change and opening or closing
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Gap Junctions
Form direct cytoplasmic connections between adjacent cells
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Contact-Dependent Signals
Require interaction between membrane on two cells
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Autocrine Signals
Act on the same cell that secreted them
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Paracrine Signals
Secreted by one cell and diffuse to adjacent cells, short distance
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Endocrine Signals
Hormone secreted by cell and travels through the bloodstream to a remote target cell
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Mast Cell
Secretes histamine to dilate local arterioles and increase local blood flow, paracrine
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Increases prostaglandin secretion from neighbouring cells and original cell, paracrine and autocrine, positive feedback
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Insulin Secretion
Regulated by changing levels of blood constituent (glucose)
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Sex Hormone Secretion
Regulated by blood levels of another hormone (anterior pituitary hormone)
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Oxytocin Secretion
Regulated by activity of nerves
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Synaptic Signalling
Nerve cell signalling
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Released at synapse by electrical signals and causes effect at target cell
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Neurotransmitter which enters the bloodstream
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Signal Transduction
Converts one form of signal to another form
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Drug which prevents agonists binding to receptors
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Primary Ligand
Activates a receptor
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Ligand binds and activates an intracellular enzyme
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G Protein-Coupled Receptor
Ligand binds and opens ion channel or alters enzyme activity
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Integrin Receptor
Ligand binds and alters the cytoskeleton
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Tyrosine Kinases
Protein kinases phosphorylate portions of protein containing tyrosine residues
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Receptor Guanylyl Cyclases
Convert GTP to cGMP which acts as 2nd messenger activating cGMP dependent protein kinase G causing protein phosphorylation and a cellular response
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Heterotrimeric G-Protein
Three subunits, alpha, beta and gamma
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Binding cAMP Agonist Receptor
Cascade, 10^2 cAMP, 10^4 phosphorylated enzyme, 10^6 products
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