# Physical Landscapes in the uk (rivers) UNIT 1 SECTION C

?
drainage of a river basin:
an area of land drained by a river and its ?
An area of land drained by a river and it's tributaries.
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what is a source of a river?
The start of a river.
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a tributary is a small ? that joins a large ?
A small stream that joins a large river.
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a confluence of a river is where a ? joins a larger ?
Where a tributary joins a larger river.
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a watershed of a river is the ? of a river basin
The edge of a river basin.
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the mouth of a river is the ? of a river
usually where a river joins the ?
The end of a river, usually where a river joins the sea.
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velocity upstream:
faster/slower
because water is shallow
more/less friction between bed and banks
Slower.
Because the water is shallow.
There is friction with the bed and banks.
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velocity downstream:
faster/slower
water is shallow/deep from tributaries
more/less friction between bed and banks
Faster.
The water is deeper from the tributaries.
There is less friction with the bed and banks.
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cross profile and valley downstream:
as ? bring more water from drainage basin, the river becomes bigger/smaller
with more water and ? it's able to erode its channel making it wider/narrower and deeper
As tributaries bring more water from other parts of the drainage basin, the river becomes bigger.

With more water and energy, it is able to erode its channel, making it wider and deeper.
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? erosion erodes downwards
lateral erosion erodes ?
Vertical erosion (downwards)
Lateral erosion (sideways)
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erosion occurs in a river when the ? increases
When the velocity of the river increases.
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deposition occurs in a river when the ? decreases
When the velocity of the river decreases.
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landforms at upper course of river:
? due to erosion
Waterfalls, erosion.
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landforms at middle course of river:
? caused by erosion and ?
Meanders, erosion and deposition.
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landforms at lower course of river:
? caused by deposition
Levees, deposition.
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Name 4 processes of transportation.
Traction
Saltation
Suspension
Solution
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traction:
large particles ? on the riverbed
Large particles rolled on the riverbed.
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saltation:
? of large particles on the riverbed
Bouncing of large particles on the riverbed.
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suspension:
small ? held in the river
Small sediment held in the river.
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solution:
? particles
Dissolved particles.
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Name the 4 processes of erosion that take place in a river.
Hydraulic action
Abrasion
Attrition
Solution
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hydraulic action:
? of water hitting riverbed and banks
The force of the water hitting the riverbed and banks.
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abrasionL
when the load carried by river repeatedly ? the riverbed and banks, ? particles into the river
When the load carried by the river repeatedly hit the riverbed and banks, dislodging particles into the flow of river.
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attrition:
stones ? by the river knock against each other
stones become larger/smaller and more rounded
When stones carried by the river knock against each other, the stones become smaller and more rounded.
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solution:
river flows over limestone, the rock is slowly ?
Where the river flows over limestone or chalk, the rock is slowly dissolved.
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larger rocks are deposited in the ? course of the river
transported by ?
Larger rocks are deposited in the upper course of the river.

Transported by traction.
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smaller rocks are carried ? the course of the river
deposited on the riverbed or banks
held in ?
Carried downstream, deposited on riverbed or banks.

Held in suspension.
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landforms created in the upper course of river:
? and gorges
Waterfalls
Gorges
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landforms created in middle course of river:
meanders and ? lakes
Meanders
Oxbow lakes
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landforms created in the lower course of river:
?plain
levees
Floodplain
Levees
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how waterfalls are formed:
river ? over a waterfall forming a ? pool
? action and abrasion combine to ? the waterfall
overhanging rock ? and waterfall retreats ?stream
When the river plunges over a waterfall it forms a plunge pool.

Hydraulic action and abrasion combine to undercut the waterfall.

Overhanging rock collapses and the waterfall retreats upstream.
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how gorges are formed:
formed by the ? of a waterfall over ? of years
Formed by the retreat of a waterfall over hundreds or thousands of years.
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meander:
wide ? of a river
change because of ? erosion and deposition
Meanders are wide bends of a river.
They change because of lateral erosion and deposition.
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the thalweg of a meander is the fastest/slowest flow within a river
The fastest flow within a river.
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erosion/deposition happens on the inside bend of a river
Deposition happens on the inside bend of a river.
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erosion/deposition happens on the outside bend of a river
Erosion happens on the outside bend of a river.
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pool: shallow/deep section
erodes a shallow/deep channel
found on ? bend of meanders
riffle: shallow/deep section
erosion/deposition of sediment
found on ? bend of meanders
A pool is a deep section
Erodes a deep channel
Found on the outside bend of meanders.

A riffle is a shallow section
Deposition of sediment
Found on the inside bend of meanders.
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oxbow lakes formed:
neck of meander is eroded/deposited
deposition seals off ?
? is cut off forming an oxbow lake
The neck of the meander is eroded
Deposition seals off meander
Meander is cut off, forming an ox bow lake.
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floodplains are wide because when ? reach the edge of a floodplain they erode the ? side
When meanders reach the edge of a floodplain they erode the valley side, making floodplains very wide.
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formation of levees:
formed by ? over many years
sediment is ?
Formed by flooding over many years.
A ridge of sediment is deposited to build up the levee.
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physical factors causing flooding:
?
? slopes
rock ?
Precipitation
Steep slopes
Rock type (geology)
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precipitation:
heavy rainstorms lead to ? floods
The heavy rainstorms lead to flash floods.
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steep slopes:
rapid transfer of ? towards river channels
Steep slopes cause result in a rapid transfer of water towards river channels.
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hard engineering management:
? and reservoirs
channel ?
em?
flood ? channels
Dams and reservoirs
Channel straightening
Embankments
Flood relief channels
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dams:
during heavy rainfall, water can be ? in reservoir and then ? when rainfall is minimal
During periods of high rainfall, water can be stored in a reservoir and can then be released when rainfall is minimal.
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?
? large areas of land
Expensive
Reservoirs can flood large areas of land
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channel straightening:
cutting through ? to create a straight channel
slows/speeds flow of water
? location from flooding
may increase the risk of flooding upstream/downstream though
Cutting through meanders to create a straight channel.

It speeds up the flow of water along the river, protecting a vulnerable location from flooding.

It may increase the risk of flooding further downstream, though.
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concrete channels:
prevents bank from ? as water flow increases upstream/downstream
looks ?
can damage ?
Prevents the bank from collapsing as water flow increases further downstream.

Also unattractive, can damage habitats.
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embankments:
? the riverbank allows the channel to ? more water before flooding
Raising the level of a riverbank allows the channel to hold more water before flooding occurs.
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mud instead of concrete walls for embankments:
it's ?
more ?
looks ?
Because it's cheaper
More sustainable
Looks natural
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a flood relief channel is a ? made channel constructed to bypass an ? area
A man-made river channel constructed to by-pass an urban area.
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sluice gates:
can be opened to allow water to flow into/out of relief channel
reduces threat of ?
During times of high flow, sluice gates can be opened to allow excess water to flow away into the relief channel, reducing the threat of flooding.
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soft engineering management:
wetland and flood ? areas
floodplain ?
river ?
Wetlands and flood storage areas
Floodplain zoning
River restoration
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wetland storages:
deliberately allowed to ? to form storage areas
reduces risk of ? downstream
Wetlands are deliberately allowed to flood to form flood storage areas.

Water can be stored to reduce the risk of flooding further downstream.
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floodplan zoning:
restricts ? uses to areas close to the river
Floodplain zoning restricts land uses to areas close to the river and at risk from flooding.

Floodplain zoning can reduce overall losses cause by flood damage.
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river restoration:
? processes and ? of river to slow down river flow
River restoration uses natural processes and features of a river to slow down the river flow.
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planning for floods:
moving items ? in house
using ? to prevent damage
using ? at doors
Moving valuable items upstairs
Using floodgates to prevent property damage
Using sandbags.
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

what is a source of a river?

#### Back

The start of a river.

### Card 3

#### Front

a tributary is a small ? that joins a large ?

### Card 4

#### Front

a confluence of a river is where a ? joins a larger ?

### Card 5

#### Front

a watershed of a river is the ? of a river basin