Physical Geography

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What are upland and lowland landscapes?
Upland landscapes are caused by glacial erosion, they are a result of an areas geology, past tectonic processes and past glaciations. Lowland landscapes are caused by glacial deposition.
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What do upland and lowland landscapes consist of?
Upland- Resistant igneous, metamorphic and some sedimentary rocks. Lowland- Younger, less resistant sedimentary rocks.
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What are the uses, characteristics and examples of metamorphic rocks?
Used for surfaces and roofing. It is resistant to weathering, hard wearing and has a squashed structure. eg Marble, Slate and Schist.
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What are the uses, characteristics and examples of igneous rocks?
Used for flooring, construction and cement. It is resistant to weather, shiny when polished, hard and porous. eg Pumica, Gabbro and Basalt.
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What are the uses, characteristics and examples of sedimentary rocks?
Used for paving tiles and filler. It is colourful, reactant to erosing and forms in layers. eg Shale, Limestone and Sandstone.
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What is the Tees-Ex line?
It is a line between the river Tees and the river Ex. It shows where the two different types of rock and formations are split in the UK. Upland landscapes are above the line and lowland landscape are below it.
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Which two factors affect the UK's landscape?
Geology and processes (fluvial, tectonic and glacial).
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What is formed by concordant coastlines?
Forms cliffs and coves. (Concordant- Coves- Cliffs)
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What is formed by discordant coastlines?
They are normally harder rocks and form headlands and bays.
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What are vertical and horizontal weaknesses in rocks called?
Vertical weaknesses are called joints. Horizontal weaknesses are known as bedding places or faults.
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What are the effects of waves on the coast?
They case erosion, transport eroded material and deposit eroded material.
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What subaerial processes happen at the cliff face?
Freeze-thaw weathering, salt cracking (same as freeze-thaw but just with salt), chemical weathering (eg acid rain) and mass movement (eg landslides, rockfalls, slumps etc)
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What are the factors that affect river erosion?
Load, velocity, gradient, geology and acid levels.
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How do rivers transport materials?
Suspension (small particle are held in the river), saltation (smaler stones are moved along, then stops. This keeps repeating), traction (large stones roll) and solution (dissolved chemicals are carried along).
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What jobs do a river do?
Upper course- Erosion. Middle course- Transportation. Lower course- Deposition.
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What is river deposition?
When a river loses energy, it will drop or deposit some of the material it is carrying. This may occur when a river is in an area of shallow water, when the gradient drops and when the water volume decreases.
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Where is river deposition most common?
Towards the end of a river's journey at the mouth.
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What are the valleys like going down a river?
Upper- V-Shaped, vertical erosion. Middle- Wider and flatter, lateral erosion. Lower- Wide and flat, alluvium deposition.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What do upland and lowland landscapes consist of?

Back

Upland- Resistant igneous, metamorphic and some sedimentary rocks. Lowland- Younger, less resistant sedimentary rocks.

Card 3

Front

What are the uses, characteristics and examples of metamorphic rocks?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the uses, characteristics and examples of igneous rocks?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the uses, characteristics and examples of sedimentary rocks?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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