# Physcis from the start

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describe an experiment to measure the motion of a toy car
measure out 2m and put it alongside a ramp that has an incline then time how long it takes to get from the top of the ramp to the bottom
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describe a velocity time graph
f
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how to you get acceleration from a velocity time graph
it is the gradient of a velocity-time graph
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how to you determine the distance travelled on a velocity time graph
it is the area between a velocity time graph and the time axis
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what is gravitational force
gravity is a force that attracts objects with mass towards each other. The weight of an object is the force acting on it due to gravity. G=10 N/Kg
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what is electrostatic force
This is a force that acts between two charges
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what is friction
friction is a force that opposes motion of an object
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what are the forces acting on a falling object
pic of skydiver
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what is terminal velocity
objects falling through a fluid eventually reach terminal velocity, when the RESULTANT FORCE acting on them is zero and they are moving at a steady speed
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how do you work out air resistance
mass x acceleration
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describe an experiment to work out the forces acting on a falling object e.g. parachute
by dropping an object from a height with a small parachute attached and you would measure the weight of the object and the air resistance
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how does speed affect stopping distance
graph
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how does mass affect stopping distance
the larger mass of car means that the stopping distance will be larger
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what factors increase the thinking distance
greater speed, tiredness, alcohol and drugs, distractions
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what factors increase the braking distance
greater speed, poor rood conditions and car conditions( poor brakes, full of people)
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how does the weight of an object act on a body
it acts through its centre of gravity
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describe an experiment to investigate how extension varies with applied force for helical springs, metal wires and rubber bands
you would add weight to an elastic band that has been suspended from a point and add weights to it. this could be repeated with metal wires or helical springs
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what is the linear region of a force extension graph associated with
hooke's law
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describe elastic behaviour
it is the ability of a material to recover its original shape after the forces causing deformation have been removed
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what does gravitational force have an effect on in the solar system
it causes moons to orbit planets, causes the planets to orbit the sun, causes artificial satellites to orbit the earth and causes comets to orbit the sun
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describe the difference between the orbits of comets, planets and moons
planets orbit the sun and the comets orbit the sun in a oval shape and moons orbit the planets in a circular fashion
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what is a galaxy
a large collection of billions of stars
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what is the unit for coloumb
C
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what are the hazards of electricity
frayed cables, long cables , damaged plugs, water around sockets, and pushing objects into sockets
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what are the uses of insulation, double insulation, earthing, fuses and circuit breakers in domestic appliances
double insulation=plastic covers will not give an electric shockEARTHING=electric device with the groundFUSING=putting in a part of wire that will melt when the circuit gets too hotCIRCUIT BREAKERS are used to break the circuit when it is too hot
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what does current in a resistor result
it results in the electrical transfer of energy
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what is the difference between mains electricity and the electricity supplied to a cell or battery
mains electricity is ac (alternating current) and dc(directing current) to cells and batteries
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why is a parallel circuit used for a house
so that if one area of the circuit dies then the rest will still be able to function
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what does a series circuit voltage depend on
components will use voltage and therefore the more voltage means that more components can be used
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how does current vary in comparison to voltage
current will slow down in a wire because of resistance and all components do that and voltage is what is needed for current to flow through it
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describe the qualitative effect of changing resistance on the current of a circuit
as the resistance is decreased the current will increase and vice versa
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describe the qualitative variation of resistance of LDRs, themistors and temperature
LDR=in the dark resistance is high and little current flows and in light resistance is low and current can flowTHERMISTOR=low temp resistance high and current low and at high temp resistance low current flows
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what shows the current in a circuit
lamps and LEDS
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what is acurrent
The rate of flow of charge
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what is electric current in solid metallic conductors
it is a flow of negatively charged electrons
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what is a common insulator and conductor
Conductors=copper and insulators=plastic
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what is the difference between longitudinal and transverse waves
longitudinal = back and forth and transverse = up and down
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describe an experiment to work out longitudinal and transverse waves
a string creating s shapes is a transverse wave and a spring going back and forth will create a longitudinal wave
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define amplitude and wavelength
pic of waves
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describe the electromagnetic spectrum from low to high
radio waves, microwaves, infared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma radiation
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describe a wave
waves transfer energy and information without transferring matter
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describe the colours of the visible spectrum
Violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange, red
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what are the uses for radio waves
broadcasting and communications
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what are the uses for microwaves
cooking and satellite transmissions
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what are the uses for infared
heaters and night vision
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what are the uses for ultraviolet
fluorescent lamps
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what are the uses for X-rays
observing the internal structure of objects and materials and medical applications
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what are the uses for gamma rays
sterilising food and killing cancer cells
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what are the dangers of microwaves
internal heating of body tissue
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what are the dangers of infared
skin burns
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what are the dangers of ultraviolet
damage to surface cells and blindness
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what are the dangers of gamma rays
cancer/ mutation
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what are light waves and can they be refracted and reflected
light waves are transverse waves which can be reflected and refracted
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what is the law of reflection
the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection
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what are sound waves and can they be refracted and reflected
sound waves are longitudinal waves and can be refracted and relflected
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what is the frequency range for human hearing
20Hz-20,000Hz
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describe an experiment to measure the speed of sound in air
clapping two boards together on the other side of a field and measuring how long it takes to reach you
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what are energy the energy types
thermal, light, electrical, sound, kinetic, chemical, nuclear and potential(elastic and gravitational)
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what is a sankey diagram
pic
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describe radiation
infared radiation is a wave and can be absorbed
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describe convection
convection is where a heat energy in a radiator for example will rise pushing the cold particles out of the way
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describe conduction
in a solid the kinetic energy of the particles will be more when it is hotter so the particles will cause the whole solid to become e.g. a metal rod
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why is insulation used
to stop heat escaping through the windows or the door to cost less money or even just the walls were air might be trapped for insulation
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how is convection used everyday
when a radiator is turned on
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what is power
the rate of energy transfer or the rate of doing work
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how is wind used in renewable energy
wind causes the blades to move which is kinetic energy and is generated into electricity
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how is water used in renewable energy
the kinetic energy of the water can cause turbines to turn creating electrical power
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how is geothermal energy used in renewable energy
hot water and steam rise which can drive turbines to create power
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how is solar used for renewable energy
solar panels convert light energy into electrical energy
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how to you get from degrees celsius to kelvin
+273
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what is the unit for a pascal
Pa
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describe an experiment to investigate mass and volume
drop objects in a eurika can and measure their mass and compare results
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how does a pressure at a point act
in a gas or liquid it acts equally in all directions
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describe brownian motion
it is pollen grains moving like particles in a liquid or a gas.
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describe what a gas does
it moves in a random motion and exerts a force and causes a pressure on the walls
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what does an increase in temperature do to a gas
it increases the kinetic energy of the particles so they move faster
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what is the equation for pressure and volume of a fixed mass of gas at constant temperature
p1V1=p2V2
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what is flemmings left hand rule
pic
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describe an experiment to investigate the magnetic field pattern for a permanent bar magnet and for two magnets as well
you would put it on some paper put a dot where the plotting compass pointed and repeat the process and for two magnets you would do the same from both magnets
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how would you use two magnets to produce a uniform magnetic field pattern
you would put them close together with a gap and in the centre you would have a uniform field
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what does an electric current in a conductor produce
a magnetic field around it
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describe how a loudspeaker and electric motors work
a force is exerted on a current carrying wire in a magnetic field, and this will move other magnets causing motion like in speakers
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how is voltage enduced
it is enduced when in a conductor or a coil it moves through a magnetic field cutting through the magnetic field lines and there is more when it is moved faster or more frequently through the magneti fields
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how is electricity generated
it is generated when a magnet is rotated within a coil of wire within a magnetic field more quickly= more voltage
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what is the unit for becquerel
Bq
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describe the nature of alpha, beta and gamma particles
alpha is very strong ionising power, beta strong ionising power and gamma is weak
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

describe a velocity time graph

f

### Card 3

#### Front

how to you get acceleration from a velocity time graph

### Card 4

#### Front

how to you determine the distance travelled on a velocity time graph

### Card 5

#### Front

what is gravitational force

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