photosynthesis

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define the term heterotroph
organism that igest and digests complex organic molecules, releasing the chemical potential energy stored in them
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define the term autotroph
organism which uses light or chemical energy and inorganic molecules (co2 and water) to synthesis complex organic molecules
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True or False- light energy is used during photosynthesis to produce complex organic molecules
True
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what does the inner membrane of chlorplasts do?
has transport protiens to control the entry and exit of substances between the cytoplasm and stroma- less permiable
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what do granda do in the chlorplasts?
they provide a large surface area for photosynthetic pigments, electron carriers and ATP synthes which all invilved in the light dependent stage
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what does the fluid filled stroma do?
contains enzymes needed to catalyse reactions of the light independent stage
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what do photosynthetic pigments do?
they are arranged in a special structure called a photosystem which allows maximum absorbtion of light
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what are lamella in a chloroplast?
they link together granum and are thylakoid membranes
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what are thylakoids?
fluid filled stacks, stacked up in the chloroplast to form grana
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why is grnan surround by stroma
allows products from light dependent stage to travel quickly for light independent stage
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define th term photosynthetic pigments?
molecules that absorb light energy. each pigment absorbs a range of wave lengths in visible region and have it own distinct peak of absorbtion and others waves are reflected
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what are the two types of pigments?
primary pigment, accessory pigment
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give two forms of primary pigments
chlorophyla- p680 and chlorophyll a- p700 and chlorophyll b
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what colours do primary pigments reflect and absorb
reflexy- yellow/green and absorb- red
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what is the peak absorbtion for chlorophyll p-680 and p-700
680nm and 700nm
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what is chlorophyll b wave length and what colour does it appear?
500nm and 640nm- appears blue/green
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name an example of accessory pigments
carotenoids, chlrophyl b
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what colours do cartenoids reflect and absorb
reflect- yellow and orange and absorb- blue
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true or false- accessory pigments are directly involved in light-dependent stage
false- indirectly involved
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what are the main carotenoids pigments?
carotene (orange) and xanthophyll (yellow)
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where does the light dependent stage occur
thylakoid membrane
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what are the main two stages of the light dependent stage
cyclic and non- cyclic phosphorylation
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what ahppens when light hits photosystem 2
the light excites the electron which cause 2 electron to be lost
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what ahppens when electrons are lost
captured by electron acceptors and passsed down electron carries embedded in thylakoid membrane releaseing energy (making atp)
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give an example of an electron carrier
cytochromes
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where do the electrons come from that replace photosystem 2 electrons
they come from photoylises (splitting) of water
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what does photolyisis create (spillting of water)
it creates 2 electons, s hydrogen ions and 1/2 an oxygen- makes atp
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what happens when light hits photosystem 1
electron get excited and are lost and replaced by electrons from ps2
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what ahppens to the two electrons lost from photosystem 1 and the 2 hydrogen ions from splitting of water
they combine to turn NADP into reduced NADP
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describe what happens wjem electrons pass through the electron carriers
pumps protons across the thylakoid membrane causing the protons accumulate to form a proton gradient. the flow of these causes ADP and pi to make ATP- chemiosmosis
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true or false- non cyclic phosphorylation invovles both photosystems
TRUE
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True or false- photolysis occurs in cycle phosphorylation?
false- non cyclic
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where does the light- independent stage occur?.
in the stroma
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true or false- light is not directly used, it used the products of the light dependent stage
true
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describe light independent stage 1
1. co2 diffuses into the leaf through open stomata 2. in the stroma, co2 combines with a 5 carbon compound, ribulose bisphosphate, catalysed by rubisco and becomes carboxylated 3. prducts of this is 2x3carbpn compound glycerate 3- phosphate co2 fixed
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describe the light independent stage 2
Gp is reduced and phosphorylated to another 3 carbon compund 2x triose phosphate. atp is ued from light dependent. 5/6 carbons are recycled to ribulose bisphopahte and 1 carbon used for glucose.
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how many times does the calvin cycle have to take place to form one glucose molecule
6
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what can gluciose then be used for once made in the calvin cycle?
fructose, sucrose, cellulose, starch , glycerol
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true or false- triose phosphate and glycerol-3-phosphate can be used to make carbohydrates, lipids and amino acids and most triose phoshate
true
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what are the three main limiting factors of photosynthesis
carbon dioxide levels, light levels and temperatur levels
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Card 2

Front

define the term autotroph

Back

organism which uses light or chemical energy and inorganic molecules (co2 and water) to synthesis complex organic molecules

Card 3

Front

True or False- light energy is used during photosynthesis to produce complex organic molecules

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what does the inner membrane of chlorplasts do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what do granda do in the chlorplasts?

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Preview of the front of card 5
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