Philosophy of Religion - Teleological Argument

What is the basic teleological argument?
All great things in the universe have a telos/purpose and therefore must have been created by a supreme mover.
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What is the process that outlines the teleological argument?
1) When we see things which are ordered/beautiful, we can infer they did not make themselves or arise by chance. 2) Since they didn't make themselves or arise by chance they must have a creator. 3) The natural world - created by an intelligent being.
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What is Aquinas' 5th Way?
Things in the universe which are ordered cannot have happened coincidentally and therefore must've had a guiding hand.
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What is Aquinas' archer analogy?
Aquinas uses the example of an arrow and an archer. The arrow has no idea where its going and what it's shooting at. It is only through the archer that it becomes aware of its goal. Everything in nature which is moving - must've been directed by God.
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Who is responsible for the Watch Analogy?
William Paley.
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What is the Watch Analogy?
1) A man comes across a watch on a heath. 2) It's too intricately designed to have come about on its own. 3) So it must've been put there by something intelligent (i.e God)
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What other example does Paley use?
An eye - it is intricately designed and has many parts. Surely this can't have happened on its own.
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What are some criticisms of the Watch Analogy?
Hume - we have no experience of world making. A watch is not made of organic material representative of the world and therefore a useless analogy. It gives no evidence for God's existence.
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What is Swinburne's argument?
The world could've easily been chaotically ordered but it hasn't been. It cannot have been down to chance that this happened. It also can't be a matter of probability - the size of the universe makes it unlikely that this just ''happened''.
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What does the high degree of order in the universe demonstrate?
The evidence of a personal, conscious, choice of God. From order we can discern beauty; we cannot have beauty without order and order reflects the good in the world.
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What is design qua-purpose?
The argument that the universe has been designed to fulfil a purpose. There is evidence of design and that the design appears to have some function, e.g an eye.
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What is design qua-regularity?
The argument that the universe appears to have been designed according to some rule/order/regularity.
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What did Paley say about design qua-regularity?
Paley considered the motion of the planets in the solar system as an example of this. The relationship of the planets/gravity etc. would not have come about without a designing principle at work.
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What is F.R Tennant's Aesthetic Argument?
There is more to life than just mere existence. Humans also appreciate aesthetic activity such as music art and literature. This is not necessary for survival, so cannot have come about through natural selection.
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Further develop the Aesthetic Argument?
Bases its premise on the idea that the universe is ordered. The abundance of unnecessary beauty is not essential to sustain human life is simply there - is justified by a creator God.
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What is Hume's criticism about world making?
We have no experience of world making so it is illogical to suggest that our universe has been created by an intelligent designer in the same way a watch has.
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What does Hume say is a better analogy for the order in the universe?
Hume's says a cabbage is a better analogy for the universe because it is organic and natural and promises self regulation.
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What does Hume say about the bad things in the world?
Poor order implies a poor designer. What about when people are born blind? Surely that cannot imply a perfect designer.
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Why doesn't design imply the God of Classical Theism?
It doesn't suggest an omni-benevolent, omnipotent God. It could be a team of designers/Gods or the world could've arisen by chance.
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How does F.R Tennant suggest that the world can have been created by the God of Classical Theism?
He provided us with beauty that is not necessary for human existence and therefore we can just enjoy it.
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What does J.S Mill say in rejection of the Teleological Argument?
Rejects the notion of an intelligent designer. Nature is responsible for crimes for which she goes unpunished. The atrocities of human nature would not go unpunished if they were a result of an intelligent designer.
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What does Darwin say in regard to the Teleological Argument?
The apparent design in the universe, is in fact, a result of random and natural processes (evolution).
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What does Steve Jones argue the world is?
''A series of successful mistakes''.
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What does Richard Dawkins say about the universe?
Dawkins propose a purely mechanistic universe in which biological impulses drive life forwards. Humans cannot be truly altruistic towards others. We behave in order for human genes to survive.
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What does Dawkins say in his books ''The Blind Watchmaker'' and ''Climbing Mount Improbable"?
Dawkins explains that life is a result of our genes mutating to fit the genetic foundations for that life.
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Card 2

Front

What is the process that outlines the teleological argument?

Back

1) When we see things which are ordered/beautiful, we can infer they did not make themselves or arise by chance. 2) Since they didn't make themselves or arise by chance they must have a creator. 3) The natural world - created by an intelligent being.

Card 3

Front

What is Aquinas' 5th Way?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is Aquinas' archer analogy?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Who is responsible for the Watch Analogy?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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