Personality and life Outcomes 1

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Are spouses similar in personality? (Mcrae et al)
Results: positive but very small correlations between husband’s and wife’s personality trait levels
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Similarity/difference between oneself and one’s spouse watson et al 2004
291 married couples - happiness/ sexual satisfaction/ conflict
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both husbands and wives an individuals satisfaction was related to their own leleves of the Big Five Agreeableness and Emtionality Stability Factors (positive correlations .30s/.40s)
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How does personality relate to attachment style? --- key theory
(Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991): attachment styles
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Two main dimensions of attachment styles (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991):
Anxious attachment dimension: /Avoidant attachment dimension
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Anxious attachment dimension:
tendency to worry about the loss of a partner’s love
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Avoidant attachment dimension:
tendency to feel uncomfortable being emotionally close to one’s partner
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Noftle and Shaver (2006):
self-report measures of Big Five and adult attachment style in two student samples
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Result with anxious attachment
Anxious attachment was related to low emotional stability (-.42 and -.52) and to low conscientiousness (-.23 and -.34)
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result with Avoidant attachment
Avoidant attachment was only weakly related to personality: low extraversion and low conscientiousness (in the -.20s)
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Metsapelto and Pulkkinen (2003
mothers’ and fathers’ personality at age 33 and parenting style at age 36
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being affectionate and supportive
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demanding obedience and being punitive
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Knowledge of childs....
Activity and friends
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Parents higher to openes to experience and extraversion reported having a more nurturing and less restrictive, style of parenting that those lower in the dimensions
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findings about parental knowledge
This as only very weakly associated with personality
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Are friends similar in personality? Lee, Ashton et al (2009):
similarity and assumed similarity between well-acquainted students for the HEXACO factors
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Lee & Ashton - self vs observer reoprt
friends were somewhat similar in their values and perceived each other's values as similar to their own
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stronget correlation
Honesty - Humility . / Openness to Experience
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lowest correlation?
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overall finding
For Honesty-Humility and Openness: friends tend to perceive their friends as similar and perceive even more similarity than actually exists
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H and O are related to people’s values about how to live and relate to other people
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Newcomb, Bukowski, and Pattee (1993):
meta-analysis Differences between children in the extent to which they are liked and disliked by their peers
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- popular
(liked by many, disliked by few): low in aggression; high in sociability
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(disliked by many, liked by few) high in aggression; low in sociability
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- neglected
(disliked by few, liked by few) low in aggression; low in sociability
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(liked by many and disliked by many) high in aggression; high in sociability
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Anderson, John, Keltner, and Kring (2001)
Big Five from young adult college students in a fraternity, sorority, and mixed-sex dormitory
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Peer ratings of each student’s prominence, influence, and respect
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Results of Anderson et al (2003)
Extraversion was positively related to social status both for men and women
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emotional stability...?
was positive related to social status among men (or neuroticism was negatively related)
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Other 3 Big 5?
unrelated to social status
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Traits related with resisting temptation
Conscientiousness: self-discipline, impulse control
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Traits associated with temptation to use substance to control negative emotions
High Neuroticism: anxiety, moodiness, irritability
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Elkins, Kins, McGue, and Iacono (2006): about 1000 17-year-olds
Interviews to determine their tobacco, alcohol and drug use
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 at age 20: nicotine dependence (30%), alcohol (30%) or drug use disorder (20%)
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Results of Elkins et al (2006) 17 year olds....
Participants at age 17 with substance use disorder were lower in Conscientiousness-related traits and lower in Emotional stability
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what were the traits predictive of?
predictive for developing substance use disorders by age 20
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traits predicted to tendency to quit smoking (Terracciano & Costa, 2004; Bottlender & Soyka, 2004)
Conscientiousness and emotional stability also predict quitting smoking and quitting drinking
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who confirmed the role of conscientiousness
Bogg and Roberts (2004):
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Friedman et al (1993): Does childhood personality predict longevity?- how did he test this
personality of gifted children (11 years old) during 1921-1922
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time scale/ what was measured?
More than 60 years later: records of who was still alive and who had died (N=1200)
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results- Conscientiousness/social dependability:
low (vs high) conscientious persons had about 35% greater chance of dying before the age of 70
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Low conscientiousness/dependability
related to smoking and drinking but these relations could not explain the link between cons/depend and early death (Friedman et al., 1995)
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persons high (vs low) in cheerfulness had about a 35% higher chance of dying before the age of 70
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this was unrelated to?
Unrelated to smoking and heavy drinking (Martin et al., 2002)
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William Osler (1910) sated ):
): “having a keen and ambitious disposition increases the risk of heart disease”
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Friedman and Rosenman (1959)
“Type A” personality: competitiveness, impatience, excessive job involvement, hostility, and time urgency (Type B personalities show the opposite pattern)
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what does this mean for heart disease
Increased probability of heart disease
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Most important aspect?
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Why is hostile dominance related to higher risk of heart disease?
Poorer health habits More conflicts  more stress for themselves Receive less stress-reducing support from others Greater physiological reactions to stress  damage to blood vessels
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Cognitive ability =Poropat (2009): meta-analysis of more than 100 studies
Conscientiousness and grade point average: r = .25
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Elementary school level:
Also positive associations with Agreeableness, Emotional stability, Extraversion, and Openness to Experience (around .20)
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Self-discipline, organization, and diligence results in?
greater effort, efficiency, and attention to detail in completing course work and examinations
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Similarity/difference between oneself and one’s spouse watson et al 2004


291 married couples - happiness/ sexual satisfaction/ conflict

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How does personality relate to attachment style? --- key theory


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Card 5


Two main dimensions of attachment styles (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991):


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