Personality and life Outcomes 1

HideShow resource information
Are spouses similar in personality? (Mcrae et al)
Results: positive but very small correlations between husband’s and wife’s personality trait levels
1 of 54
Similarity/difference between oneself and one’s spouse watson et al 2004
291 married couples - happiness/ sexual satisfaction/ conflict
2 of 54
Resuolts
both husbands and wives an individuals satisfaction was related to their own leleves of the Big Five Agreeableness and Emtionality Stability Factors (positive correlations .30s/.40s)
3 of 54
How does personality relate to attachment style? --- key theory
(Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991): attachment styles
4 of 54
Two main dimensions of attachment styles (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991):
Anxious attachment dimension: /Avoidant attachment dimension
5 of 54
Anxious attachment dimension:
tendency to worry about the loss of a partner’s love
6 of 54
Avoidant attachment dimension:
tendency to feel uncomfortable being emotionally close to one’s partner
7 of 54
Noftle and Shaver (2006):
self-report measures of Big Five and adult attachment style in two student samples
8 of 54
Result with anxious attachment
Anxious attachment was related to low emotional stability (-.42 and -.52) and to low conscientiousness (-.23 and -.34)
9 of 54
result with Avoidant attachment
Avoidant attachment was only weakly related to personality: low extraversion and low conscientiousness (in the -.20s)
10 of 54
Metsapelto and Pulkkinen (2003
mothers’ and fathers’ personality at age 33 and parenting style at age 36
11 of 54
Nurturance
being affectionate and supportive
12 of 54
Restrictiveness:
demanding obedience and being punitive
13 of 54
Knowledge of childs....
Activity and friends
14 of 54
results
Parents higher to openes to experience and extraversion reported having a more nurturing and less restrictive, style of parenting that those lower in the dimensions
15 of 54
findings about parental knowledge
This as only very weakly associated with personality
16 of 54
Are friends similar in personality? Lee, Ashton et al (2009):
similarity and assumed similarity between well-acquainted students for the HEXACO factors
17 of 54
Lee & Ashton - self vs observer reoprt
friends were somewhat similar in their values and perceived each other's values as similar to their own
18 of 54
stronget correlation
Honesty - Humility . / Openness to Experience
19 of 54
lowest correlation?
Emotionality
20 of 54
overall finding
For Honesty-Humility and Openness: friends tend to perceive their friends as similar and perceive even more similarity than actually exists
21 of 54
Reasoning?
H and O are related to people’s values about how to live and relate to other people
22 of 54
Newcomb, Bukowski, and Pattee (1993):
meta-analysis Differences between children in the extent to which they are liked and disliked by their peers
23 of 54
- popular
(liked by many, disliked by few): low in aggression; high in sociability
24 of 54
rejected
(disliked by many, liked by few) high in aggression; low in sociability
25 of 54
- neglected
(disliked by few, liked by few) low in aggression; low in sociability
26 of 54
controversial
(liked by many and disliked by many) high in aggression; high in sociability
27 of 54
Anderson, John, Keltner, and Kring (2001)
Big Five from young adult college students in a fraternity, sorority, and mixed-sex dormitory
28 of 54
method
Peer ratings of each student’s prominence, influence, and respect
29 of 54
Results of Anderson et al (2003)
Extraversion was positively related to social status both for men and women
30 of 54
emotional stability...?
was positive related to social status among men (or neuroticism was negatively related)
31 of 54
Other 3 Big 5?
unrelated to social status
32 of 54
Traits related with resisting temptation
Conscientiousness: self-discipline, impulse control
33 of 54
Traits associated with temptation to use substance to control negative emotions
High Neuroticism: anxiety, moodiness, irritability
34 of 54
Elkins, Kins, McGue, and Iacono (2006): about 1000 17-year-olds
Interviews to determine their tobacco, alcohol and drug use
35 of 54
findings
 at age 20: nicotine dependence (30%), alcohol (30%) or drug use disorder (20%)
36 of 54
Results of Elkins et al (2006) 17 year olds....
Participants at age 17 with substance use disorder were lower in Conscientiousness-related traits and lower in Emotional stability
37 of 54
what were the traits predictive of?
predictive for developing substance use disorders by age 20
38 of 54
traits predicted to tendency to quit smoking (Terracciano & Costa, 2004; Bottlender & Soyka, 2004)
Conscientiousness and emotional stability also predict quitting smoking and quitting drinking
39 of 54
who confirmed the role of conscientiousness
Bogg and Roberts (2004):
40 of 54
Friedman et al (1993): Does childhood personality predict longevity?- how did he test this
personality of gifted children (11 years old) during 1921-1922
41 of 54
time scale/ what was measured?
More than 60 years later: records of who was still alive and who had died (N=1200)
42 of 54
results- Conscientiousness/social dependability:
low (vs high) conscientious persons had about 35% greater chance of dying before the age of 70
43 of 54
Low conscientiousness/dependability
related to smoking and drinking but these relations could not explain the link between cons/depend and early death (Friedman et al., 1995)
44 of 54
Cheerfulness/optimism
persons high (vs low) in cheerfulness had about a 35% higher chance of dying before the age of 70
45 of 54
this was unrelated to?
Unrelated to smoking and heavy drinking (Martin et al., 2002)
46 of 54
William Osler (1910) sated ):
): “having a keen and ambitious disposition increases the risk of heart disease”
47 of 54
Friedman and Rosenman (1959)
“Type A” personality: competitiveness, impatience, excessive job involvement, hostility, and time urgency (Type B personalities show the opposite pattern)
48 of 54
what does this mean for heart disease
Increased probability of heart disease
49 of 54
Most important aspect?
Hostility
50 of 54
Why is hostile dominance related to higher risk of heart disease?
Poorer health habits More conflicts  more stress for themselves Receive less stress-reducing support from others Greater physiological reactions to stress  damage to blood vessels
51 of 54
Cognitive ability =Poropat (2009): meta-analysis of more than 100 studies
Conscientiousness and grade point average: r = .25
52 of 54
Elementary school level:
Also positive associations with Agreeableness, Emotional stability, Extraversion, and Openness to Experience (around .20)
53 of 54
Self-discipline, organization, and diligence results in?
greater effort, efficiency, and attention to detail in completing course work and examinations
54 of 54

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Similarity/difference between oneself and one’s spouse watson et al 2004

Back

291 married couples - happiness/ sexual satisfaction/ conflict

Card 3

Front

Resuolts

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How does personality relate to attachment style? --- key theory

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Two main dimensions of attachment styles (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991):

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Philosophy resources:

See all Philosophy resources »See all Personality resources »