Personality and Intelligence revision

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: lewis
  • Created on: 05-04-16 22:39
The Big Five of Personality (trait approach):
openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness & neuroticism. universal.
1 of 43
Trait approach:
approaches which explain character traits with regard to individual features of one's personality (eg five factor model / big five)
2 of 43
Emotional Intelligence:
the ability to understand your own emotions and those of people around you.
3 of 43
Dispositional approach:
personality is consistent and unchanging regardless of context
4 of 43
Situational approach:
personality or behaviours determined by situational factors.
5 of 43
Idiographic approach to examine personality traits:
single, individual, unique. every human being is like no other.
6 of 43
Nomothetic approach to examine personality traits:
universal, every human being is like some other.
7 of 43
Nomothetic approach most important traits - lexical:
major dimensions of personality can be derived form the total number of descriptors in any language system (Allport and Odbert, 1936) & big five.
8 of 43
Nomothetic approach most important traits - statistical:
factor analysis & five factor model.
9 of 43
A historical perspective of intelligence. Theory first:
galton. some people have inherited 'mental constitutions' that make them more fit for thinking.
10 of 43
A historical perspective of intelligence. Measurement first:
binet. mental abilities develop with age, rate of development is fairly consistent overtime. the intelligence testing industry (objective tests).
11 of 43
Factor analysis:
data reduction technique where relationships between a number of variables is reduced to a relationship among fewer underlying factors.
12 of 43
Spearman's G Factor:
intelligence as a general mental capacity. a single factor underlies individual differences in performance.
13 of 43
Thurstone's primary mental abilities:
intelligence as specific abilities. mental performance depend on seven distant abilities. 'g' results from, rather than underlies, these mental abilities. guildford (1977) proposed over 100 distinct mental abilities.
14 of 43
G =
general ability/intelligence.
15 of 43
G (general ability) comprises two related, but distinct components:
crystallised intelligence (gf) & fluid intelligence (gc)
16 of 43
Crystallised intelligence (use of existing knowledge):
information processing, depends on CNS functioning, biological and declines over life span, non verbal tests (r. cattell)
17 of 43
Fluid intelligence (solving new problems):
acquire retain and organise information, depend on experience, environmental, verbal tests (r. cattell)
18 of 43
Hot/Social intelligence:
inter and intra-personal skills, success in social interactions.
19 of 43
Eysenck's (1985) representation of 3 different conceptions of intelligence:
BIOLOGICAL intelligence (genetics, biochemistry), PSYCHOMETRIC intelligence (IQ > upbringing, education, etc) predict SOCIAL intelligence (health, personality, drinking habits, experience)
20 of 43
Characteristics of an emotionally intelligence person (Chamorro, 2012):
adaptable, able to percieve and express emotions effectively, empathetic, high esteem, manage stress well.
21 of 43
Salovey and Mayer's branch model of emotional intelligence (MSCEIT):
first clear theory of EQ, EQ is independent and more important than IQ in real-life settings. An ability model.
22 of 43
4 branches of Salovey and Mayers model on emotional intelligence:
1) perceiving emotions 2) using emotions to facilitate thought 3) understanding emotions 4) managing emotions
23 of 43
Petride's model on emotional intelligence:
a trait model, subjective nature / questions of emotional experience.
24 of 43
Conceptual divide between ability and trait models of emotional intelligence:
trait models subjective, self report, ability models base on performance and are objective.
25 of 43
Hunter & Hunter found what on intelligence and job performance:
g (intelligence) predicts training performance, job performance and lifetime productivity. large metal scale analysis.
26 of 43
Advantages of Psychological Testing in the workplace:
compare applicants, development, scientific (reliability & validity), objective.
27 of 43
Disadvantages of Psychological Testing in the workplace:
some tests invalid, do they measure what is required? unfair and biased( socially desirable), practice and coaching (time and cost).
28 of 43
Hogan & Hogan (2005) on leadership:
65-75% of employees in any given organisation reported that the worst aspect of their job was their immediateboss.
29 of 43
Leadership definition (Hogan & Kaiser):
the ability to build and maintain a group that performs well relative to its competition.
30 of 43
Theories of leadership, trait approaches:
certain individual differences are common to all effective leaders, explains why some people become leaders.
31 of 43
Locke (1997) trait theory on leadership (CMA):
cognitive ability (intelligence), motivation and values (ambition) and attitudes towards employees (respect for ability)
32 of 43
Judge et al (2004) on intelligence and leadership:
meta analysis 151 studies, student and work samples and found E and C (big five) had stronger correlations with leadership. (but what other traits may they posses?)
33 of 43
Kerr et al (2005) supervisor and emotional intelligence:
emotional intelligence scores correlated with employee's ratings of effectiveness. specifically percieving and using emotions.
34 of 43
Leadership style (behavioural theory):
a stable patterm of behaviours adopted by leaders that dertermines their relationship with and influence over group members.
35 of 43
Charasmatic leadership style:
followers are loyal and inspired, innocative, good communication, raises follower's esteem and efficacy (eg Nelson Mandela)
36 of 43
Transformational leadership style:
form of charasmatic leadership, communicates vision to produce change in follower's values, expectations and motivations to inspire them to sacrifice personal interests for group interests.
37 of 43
Transactional leadership style:
exchanging rewards (eg money for work) for compliance.
38 of 43
Gardner and Stough (2002) tranformational leadership study:
110 high level managers, perceived EI scores correlated with transformational leadfership style and found Extraversion and Agreeableness were important predictors for leadership effectieness.
39 of 43
Costs of poor mental health in the workplace:
£30.3 billion in lost economic output (Centre for Mental Health)
40 of 43
The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) factors that lead to stress in the workplace:
support, relationships, CHANGE, demands
41 of 43
Emperical finding on personality disorders in the workplace (Broadmoore):
senior managers and CEOs had higher Histronic PD scores on average compared to Broadmoor psychiatric patients.
42 of 43
Hogan Development Survey (1997):
used with managers to identidy the personality characteristics that pose career limitations (selection, development)
43 of 43

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Trait approach:

Back

approaches which explain character traits with regard to individual features of one's personality (eg five factor model / big five)

Card 3

Front

Emotional Intelligence:

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Dispositional approach:

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Situational approach:

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all work resources »