P.E.

Fulcrum
Joint - Represented by a triangle
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Load
Weight of body or equipment - Represented by a square
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Effort
Muscles used - Represented by an arrow
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1st Class Lever
Fulcrum in the middle
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2nd Class Lever
Load in the middle
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3rd Class Lever
Effort in the middle
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1st Class Lever
Found in the neck - when heading a ball
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2nd Class Lever
Found in the ankle - when standing on tiptoes
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3rd Class Lever
Found in the arm - when performing a biceps curl
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Mechanical Advantage
You can pick heavier things up with a small amount of effort - Effort (arm) divided by weight (arm)
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Function of the skeletal system
There is six main functions
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Movement
The skeleton helps the body move by providing anchor points for the muscles to pull against. The long bones in the arms and legs work as levers to allow certain movement
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Protection
Certain parts of the skeleton enclose and protect the body's organs from external forces. This function is especially important in activities that involve contact, such as rugby or boxing
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Produce Blood Cells
The inner marrow of the long bones and ribs produces red and white blood cells. Red blood cells are impotant in activites because they carry oxygen to the working muscles. White blood cells are important to fight infection.
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Support
The bones are solid and rigid. They keep us upright and hold the rest of the body - muscles and organs together.
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Shape
The skeleton gives us our general shape such as height and build. Tall people have long leg bones and larger vertebrae. People with a heavy build have larger clavicles and scapula as well as bigger pelvises.
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Mineral Storage
Bones stores serveral miners, including calcuim and phosphorus, which can be released into the blood when needed.
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Cartialige
Stops bones rubbing and wearing as well as acting as a cushion
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Ligament
Attaches bone to bone
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Tendon
Attaches muscle to bone
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Synovial Fluid
Keeps the joint lubricated and loose to allow movement
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Synovial Membrane
Makes synovial fluid
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Joint Capsule
Hold the synovial fluid together
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Bursae
Provides a cushion between bones, tendons and muscles and aid movement
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Skeletal or Voluntary Muscles
Make up most of the muscles in the body. They help give the body shape and is also called voluntary because they are under your conscious control and only move through a conscious effort.
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Cardiac Muscles
A form of involuntary muscles as they work automatically and constantly. They are found in the walls of the heart, working to ensure the heart is beating constantly.
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Involuntary Muscles
Muscles that you cannot control, found in the walls of the intestines and in the blood vessels. They have ot keep contracting to allow crucial body function to continue.
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Deltoid
Shoulder Muscle
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Triceps
Bottom of the upper arm muscle
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Biceps
Top of the upper arm muscle
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Radials
Muscle in the lower arm
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Abdominal
Stomach Muscless
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Gluteal Muscle
Backside Muscle
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Quadriceps
Top of the top of the leg
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Hamsting
Back of the top of leg
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Gastrocnemius
Lower part of the leg on the back
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Tibialis Anterior
Lower front of the leg to the right
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Hip Flexors
Hip muscles
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Pectorals
Chest muscles
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Latissimus Dorsi
On your back below the shoulder
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Trapezuis
Neck Muscles
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Rotator Cuff
Next to the deltoid
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Cranium
Skull
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Mandible
Jaw Bone
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Clavicle
Collar Bone
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Scapula
Shoulder Blade
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Humerus
Upper arm muscle
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Ulna
Outside of lower arm
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Raduis
Thumb side of lower arm
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Femur
Top of leg
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Patella
Knee Cap
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Tibia
Lower leg
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Fibula
Lower leg
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Phalanges
Fingers/Toes
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Tarsals
Ankle
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Metacarpals
Hand
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Metatarsals
Foot
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Ball and Sockey
Located in shoulder + hip
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Pivot
Located in neck +forearm
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Hinge
Located at elbow +knee
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Saddle
Only found in thumb +middle ear
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Condlyoid
Wrist
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Contracting Muscles
Agonist - Becomes shorter
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Relaxing Muscles
Antagonist - Lengthens
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Isotonic Muscle Contractions
When there is movement. When muscles get shorter (concentric) and longer (eccentric)
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Isometric Muscle Contractions
When the muscle length stays the same (e.g. handstand)
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Extension
In the hinge joints, increasing the angle between the bones at the joint
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Flexion
In hinge joints, decreasing the angle between the bones at the joint
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Adduction
Moving towards the body (add, adding to the body)
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Abduction
Moving away from the body
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Plantar Flexion
Toe pointing down
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Dorsi Flexion
Bringing them back up
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Rotation
Neck, hip and shoulder (pivot joint)
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Agonist
The muscles that is contracting
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Antagonist
The muscle that is relaxing
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Frontal Plane
Saggital Axis
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Transverse Plane
Longitudal Axis
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Saggital Plane
Transverse Axis
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Saggital Plane
Transverse Axis
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Frontal Plane
Sidways Movements (sidestepping)
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Transverse Plane
Rotation (pivoting)
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Saggital Plane
Forwards and backwards (walking)
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Longitudal Axis
Rotation (pivoting)
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Transverse Axis
Rotation forwards and backwards (bending down)
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Saggital Axis
Rotation sideways (cartwheels)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Weight of body or equipment - Represented by a square

Back

Load

Card 3

Front

Muscles used - Represented by an arrow

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Fulcrum in the middle

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Load in the middle

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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