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How many core emotions did Ekman say they were?
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What are the 6 core emotions?
happy, sad, angry, disgust, fear and suprise
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What did James Lange think came first, the body state or the emotion?
The body state
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In Lange's hypothesis, what happened after a stimulus was presented?
There was a pre-conscious physiological response which was followed by behaviour and the conscious reaction came after
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What is the evidence from smiling in favour of Lange's theory?
Kleinke et al (1998) found those who smile more fell happier. Strack et al (1988) found those who used a pen to activate their smile muscles rated jokes as funnier.
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What could botox bring to depression treatments?
This paralyses corrogator muscles which could stop feedback about sad body state. So uses beta blockers which also stop this feedback: reduce depression.
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What evidence is there against Lange's theory?
Some body states are ambiguous for distict mood states. So must be more than just body states that gives rise to how you are feeling.
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What does Cannon-Bard believe in?
Emotion appraisal comes before the body's reaction. We only get fight or flight response because we feel scared.
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What evidence supports Cannon-Bard's theory?
If an emotional reaction is ambiguous then the appraisal of our emotion can be misinterpreted.
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What is the main problem with Cannon-Bard's theory?
It's too slow
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What evidence is there that the interpretation of a stimulus in combination with the automatic response it produces is needed for the perception of emotions?
The study by Dulton et al (1974). This used a rope bridge with an interview by an attractive female halfway through. Male pps misattributed the fear the experienced to arousal because the automatic response they has 2 possible premises.
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What is the sex bias in perceiving facial expressions?
Women more likely to be thought of as sad whereas men as angry.
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What does EMG on the face measure?
Subtle contractions of the corrugator supercillia and zygomaticus major mainly to discriminate between positive and negative expressions not seen to the naked eye.
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What does a polygraph show?
Measures automatic reactions to arousal, such as BP, respiration rate, GSR.
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What kind of processing happens between initial processing of a stimulus and response by the cortex?
Slow, conscious processing
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Where does fast, pre-conscious processing happen?
The amygdala. The cortex feedsback to the amygdala too.
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What are the 2 main roles of the anterior cingulate cortex?
To recognise error to prevent repetition of mistakes, and to discriminate between different types of pain
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As well as extracting body states to interpret emotions, what does the insula do?
Gives perception of disgust
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Where does the amygdala receive visual input from?
The thalamus
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When presented with threatening images subliminally, what brain area responds and what does this tell us?
The amygdala which shows it can do unconscious processing
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What system is the ventral striatum a part of?
The dopamine system
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What happens when the monkey's ventral striatum is stimulated using electrodes?
The monkey continues to self stimulate itself using a button even when it's at risk of starvation because this is an essential area for giving positive reinforcement.
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How does the orbitofrontal cortex allow learning from experience?
It is responsible for the feeling of regret. Without the orbitofrontal cortex you would continue to do behaviours even if they're inappropriate.
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Dopamine is produced by the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. What happens next?
Dopamine reaches the striatum, then processing happens in the dorsal and ventral premotor cortex. Then reinforced behaviour is produced.
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What happens in the binocular rivalry study using 2 colours when there is no conscious detection of a face?
When only the house is consciously perceived there is no activity in the FFA but the amygdala is active. This supports the idea that the amygdala automatically processes faces even non-consciously.
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What happened when Morris et al (2001) presented threat faces in the part of the visual field corresponding to a scomata?
There was no activity in the striate pathway (FFA and PFC) but the amygdala was active. This supports the amygdala as a non-conscious route to emotion processing.
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In an attentional blink study there is no conscious detecting of the 2nd target. What happend when the 2nd target is an emotion word?
The word will prime a probe word and the emotional content will break into consciousness.
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When Phelps et al (2006) presented pps with a fearful face, what happened to their contrast threshold ad what can this tell us about the effect of emotion on low level processing?
It decreased. This may be because emotion processing can signal threat and it would be adaptive to have a system where contrast sensitivity is heightened when in danger.
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What evidence is there that the amygdala does consious monitoring?
Those with bilateral amygdala lesions show no advantage in attentional blink tasks for priming by emotional words.
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How come Williams et al (1996) found people have slower reaction times on the stroop test when the words are emotional?
Because the stroop task is a measure of attention. When there is semantic processing of emotional words, attending to the colour of the letters is harder because the emotional content of the word automatically grabs your attention.
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Who found threatening animals capture attention faster than objects?
Fishen et al (2008)
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What findings create a problem with Fishen et al's study?
Non threatening animals capture attention faster than inanimate objects (Tipples et al, 2002) so it's not about threat
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What did Fox et al (2001) find out about the effect emotion has on attention withdrawal?
When cued to attend to threat, reaction times to click to a target straight after a threatening expression was presented were slower.
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In what way could threat interact with low level processes?
The amygdala feedsback to early V1.
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What did Eysenck et al find out about the effect of threat on perceptual processing?
People with depression are biased to attend to threat, as shown by the way they will perceive ambiguous words in their negative form.
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What did Baron-Cohen et al (1995) find out about gaze direction when they studied 4 year olds?
4 year-olds learnt that gaze direction indicates preference.
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What did Bayliss et al (2006) do to see if people learn that gaze direction indicates preference?
They asked pps to choose an item that they wanted. Pps chose the item that the faces on the screen repeatedly attended to.
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What happens when people with generalised anxiety disorder do the dot-probe task?
GAD patients are biased to attend to threat. When a threat target moves they are slow to withdraw from it's previous location. This is event he case when threat stimuli is presented subliminally.
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What evidence is there that background cues can feedback to attentional monitoring in the visual system?
Warm et al (1991) used a line/target computer game to simulate the vigiliant pressure truck drivers have. They found performance remained accurate for longer when the background was made to smell like peppermint or mugnet.
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What happens when you are presented with neutral stimuli when in an aroused state?
You'll probably remember that stimuli better than emotional stimuli presented when in a neutral mood state.
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What effect does automatic encoding of emotion have?
It facilitates memory consolidation.
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What happens when emotional stimuli is presented in the periphery?
It is automatically attended to. This was found by Sharot and Phelps (2004).
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What evidence is there that the amygdala processes emotional stimuli and facilitates consolidation?
The more the amygdala is activated the better the recall of stimuli (Haman et al, 1999). Also when it is activated artificially using amphetamine after the initial encoding, the stimuli is better recalled.
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What happens when the amygdala is damaged according to Labar and Phelp's study?
Emotional stimuli can't be differentiated from neutral stimuli and there is no improved memory for stimuli that would usually create arousal.
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What happened in Idriknoski and Baddeley's 1st speech study?
Pps were in an extreme state of stress and though attention was not impaired (normal stroop effect performance) they performed poorly on tests of working memory and LTM (as indicated by verbal fluency task).
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Where are glucocorticoids released from?
The adrenal glands.
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What effect do glucocorticoids have on rats?
Reduced hippocampal firing, impaired memory and hippocampal atropy.
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What has been found out about tree shrews?
When tree shrews are defeated long term stress is created. There is reduced axon branching and reduced cognitive ability.
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What happens when humans are given a drug to increase glucocorticoids?
After 4 days there is a dramatic reduction in memory performance.
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What did Bremmer (2002) find happens to the brain when people have PTSD for many years?
There is hippocampal atrophy.
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What happened in Gilbertson et al's (2002) study?
Identical twins were compared where one was a soldier and the other wasn't. Those who developed PTSD had 10% smaller hippocampi
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Why would a larger hippocampus protect against PTSD?
It might protect against adrenalin and cortisol
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What can fear pheremones do?
They can slow down semantic processing of words.
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Why can't you access the memories that were encoded when you were drunk?
They are encoded by a different neural network.
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How often are murder cases forgotton about?
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Over and Carpenter (2009) used velten techniques to create particular moods in people. When a negative mood was created and pps were asked the opinion of a face with dilated pupils, what opinion did they have?
They felt threatened of the face.
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What happens when a positive mood is created using odor?
Even by unconsious mood induction, pps recall more positive memories when in a good mood and more negative emotions when in a bad mood (check)
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Under what circumstances are flashbulb memories an accurate representation of the event?
When people have a greater emotional reaction to the event
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What 2 reasons are there for why flashbulb memories have a different quality to other memories?
They are encoded using a different mechanism. Or they are just more consolidated and retrieved more often so have more connections.
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What is the general ratio of emotional memories that are inclined to be recalled?
positives: 50%, negatives: 30%, neutral: 20%
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What did charles et al (2003) find out about the positive memory bias?
This controlled experiment found positive stimuli were recalled more frequently than negative stimuli, and this bias increased for older people.
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What brain area is for autonomic conditioning?
The amygdala. It responds even when stimuli is presented subliminally.
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What is an autonomic response?
Physiological conditioned responses.
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What happens when the amygdala is damaged in terms of autonomic responses?
There will still be evaluative responses but no physiological conditioned responses.
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What brain area mediates evaluative conditioning?
The hippocampus.
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What is an evaluative response?
The psychological responses to conditioned stimuli. I.e. conscious aversion to a road you were hit by a car on.
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What happens when the hippocampus is damaged?
In amnesia for instance there will still be physiological responses but no conscious psych. conditioned responses.
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When is unconscious evaluative conditioning used and why?
In advertising to create consumer preferences because it's effects are long lasting and hard to stop re-learn. it bypasses rational decision making.
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How long are the effects of autonomic conditioning?
Only short term. Get increased SCR for a few trials but then responses decline.
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What is operant conditioning?
Where behaviour is shaped by reinforcement.
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What type of reward is powerful for gambling?
Variable ratio reinforcement because cues then become associated with wins.
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What happens in the brain during operantly conditioned cues in gambling?
The VTA releases dopamine which projects to the striatum and frontal cortex.
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What is instructional learning?
Where stimuli is never actually encountered but reinforcement is taught using language.
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What brain area is responsible for instructional learning and which bits do what?
The right side of the amygdala. The left side is for the language learning component of instructional learning.
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What is observational learning?
The broader form of instructional learning. This time behaviour is actually encountered.
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What has been found out about the way emotion mimicry is automatic?
Even when faces are presented but are completely irrelevent to a task so not attended to or are presented subliminally, EMG to zygomatic muscles shows the face automatically mimics that stimuli.
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What has been found about the effectiveness of botox for treating depression?
In 60% of cases it lifted moods for several months
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In which brain regions are there overlapping neural systems for observing and experiencing pain?
The anterior cingulate gyrus and the insula.
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What is the benefit of simulating the emotions of people observed?
We can learn more efficiently.
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What happens when people rate the friendliness of people with varying sized pupils?
Rate those with dilated pupils as more friendly and your own pupils match the size of those on the screen.
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Give 5 features of the DIM?
1. fast 2. effortless 3. No effect of context so there is a fixed link between expression perceived and emotional evaluation 4. effortful suppression of simulating irrelevant expressions 5. Assimilation is the norm.
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What are the 3 main features of the CIM?
1) effortful 2)highly flexible because there is no direct translation from percepts to exvaluations 3) assimilation, contrast effects and supression are all equally probable
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What are the results of Tamir et al's 1st experiment?
Only polarised preferences for similar images when the brows are furrowed which shows context interacts with evaluations thus supporting the CIM.
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What are the results of Tamir et al's 2nd experiment?
Less judgemental of an undeserved criminal when shaking head and more judgemental of deserved criminal when nodding head so congruent behaviour interacts with evaluations thus supporting CIM.
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What are the results of Tamir et al's 3rd experiment?
Feedback from others (contrast effects) is processed automatically. Not a late-stage process. Because subliminal smiley face after competitor trial led to worse self performance rating. This supports the CIM over DIM.
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What evidence is there that supports DIM?
mirroring, slower to interpret body language when it's incongruent with facial expressions. Body feedback from pencil study. Subliminal priming changes preferences.
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Card 2


What are the 6 core emotions?


happy, sad, angry, disgust, fear and suprise

Card 3


What did James Lange think came first, the body state or the emotion?


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Card 4


In Lange's hypothesis, what happened after a stimulus was presented?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is the evidence from smiling in favour of Lange's theory?


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