pass geology

  • Created by: ra9718
  • Created on: 16-05-16 14:34
what are the 3 types of weathering?
chemical/mechanical/biological
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what is weathering?
is the in situ chemical alteration and mechanical and biological breakdown of rocks by exposure to the atmosphere, water and organic matter.
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what is carbonation?
is the reaction between carbonic acid and the minerals.
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what happens in carbonation?
CO2 gas in the atmosphere reacts with rainwater and pore water in the soil to form carbonic acid. The air soil pore spaces is rich in CO2 due to decomposing plant litter.this makes groundwater more acidic than rainwater.
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what is hydrolysis?
the reaction between minerals and water, causing the minerals to decompose
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what is exfoliation?
when sheets of rock split off due to differential expansion and contraction of minerals during diurnal heating and nocturnal cooling
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what is frost shattering?
is caused by the expansion of freezing water in fractures which cause rocks to be split apart
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what is pressure release?
is the expansion and fracturing of rock due to the removal of overlying rocks
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what is root action?
what causes the mechanical and chemical of rocks by the wedging action of plant roots of penetrating into rocks.
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what is burrowing?
is the action of an animal when it digs a hole and brings to the surface rock and soil particles.this facilitates weathering at greater depth, by providing access for atmospheric gases and water.
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what are the products of hydrolysis and carbonation?
clay residues
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what are the products of exfoliation?
curved sheets of rocks
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what are the products of frost shattering?
a residue of angular rock called scree
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what are the products of pressure release?
fragments of rocks
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what are the products of root action?
angular rocks
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what are the products of burrowing?
angular rocks and rock fragments
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what is erosion?
the wearing away of the land surface and removal of the sediments by means of transport
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what is abrasion ?
the wearing away of the earth's surface by the action of wind, water and ice dragging the sediments over or hurling it to a surface
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what is attrition?
is the wearing down of sediments due to collision with other grains during transport
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what is solution?
is the transport of ions dissolved in water especially K(potassium),Ca(calcium) and Na(sodium)
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what is suspension?
is the transport of material in water or air without touching the earth's surface
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what is saltation?
the transport of the materials by bouncing
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what is traction?
is the transport of a material by rolling and sliding along a surface.
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what does roundness define?
the relationship of the outline of a grain to a circle.
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what does shape define?
the relationship of a grain to a sphere.
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what does the phi scale express?
the grain size on a logaritmic scale.phi values increase arithmetically as the grain size decreases geometrically
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what is sorting?
is the degree to which particles are the same size
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what is the formula of sorting?
84%-16%/2
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what is the degree of sorting?
well sorted(1.00)
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what is a clast?
a fragment of rock resulting from the breakdown of a larger rock
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what is a pyroclast?
a fragment of rock formed by a volcanic eruption
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what is a bioclast?
a biologically formed sedimentary rock formed of fragmented organic material
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Card 2

Front

what is weathering?

Back

is the in situ chemical alteration and mechanical and biological breakdown of rocks by exposure to the atmosphere, water and organic matter.

Card 3

Front

what is carbonation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what happens in carbonation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what is hydrolysis?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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