Particles and Radiation

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What is the relative charge and relative mass of a proton?
Relative Charge: +1 Relative Mass: 1
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What is the relative charge and relative mass of a neutron?
Relative Charge: 0 Relative Mass: 1
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What is the relative charge and relative mass of a electron?
Relative Charge: -1 Relative Mass: 1/2000
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In nuclide notation, what does A represent?
Nucleon number
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In nuclide notation, what does Z represent?
Proton number
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In nuclide notation, what does X represent?
Element symbol
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What is the specific charge of a particle?
The ration of its charge to its mass
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What are the units for specific charge?
Ckg^-1 (coulombs per kilogram)
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What are isotopes?
Atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
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What does the number of neutrons in an atom affect?
The stability of the atom
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What does isotopic data tell us?
The relative amounts of the different isotopes of an element present in a substance
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Give an example of a use of isotopic data
Carbon dating: scientists can calculate the approximate age of a substance made from dead organic matter by using isotopic data to find the percentage of radioactive carbon-14 that's left in the object
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What is the role of the strong nuclear force?
To keep the nucleus stable
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At what range is the strong nuclear force repulsive?
Up to 0.5fm
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At what range is the strong nuclear force attractive?
From 0.5fm to 3fm
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What property must an atom have to undergo alpha decay?
Must be very large (more than 82 protons)
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Why do some atoms undergo alpha decay?
The nuclei of these atoms are too big for the strong nuclear force to keep them stable, so they emit an alpha particle to become more stable
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What are the constituents of an alpha particle?
Two protons and two neutrons (ie a helium nucleus)
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What is the range of alpha particles?
Very short range (only a few cm in air)
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What can be used to stop alpha radiation?
Paper
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What property must an atom have to undergo beta decay?
Must be neutron rich (have too many neutrons compared to protons in their nucleus)
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What must be emitted in beta-minus decay?
An electron and an antineutrino
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What happens to a nucleus when a beta-minus particle is emitted?
One of the neutrons is changed into a proton
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Why does an antineutrino need to be emitted in beta-minus decay?
To carry away some of the energy and momentum (according to the principle of conservation of energy)
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What is the range of beta particles?
Much greater range than alpha particles (several metres in air)
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What can be used to stop beta radiation?
Aluminium
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State the electromagnetic spectrum in order of increasing wavelength (or decreasing frequency)
Gamma rays, X-rays, UV, Visible light, Infrared, Microwaves, Radio waves
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Which properties do particles and their antiparticles share?
Same mass and rest energy
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Which property do particles and their antiparticles not share?
They have equal but opposite charges
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What assumption can we make about neutrinos and antineutrinos?
They have zero mass and zero rest energy
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What is pair production?
A process of converting energy into mass in which a particle and its antiparticle are produced
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What is produced in pair production of a gamma ray photon?
An electron and a positron
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In pair production, how do you calculate the minimum energy required?
Minimum energy needed = 2 x rest energy of particle type produced
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What is annihilation?
The process by which a particle and its antiparticle meet and their mass is converted into energy in the form of two gamma ray photons
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In annihilation, how do you calculate the minimum energy produced?
Minimum energy of photon produced = rest energy of particle type annihilated
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Are hadrons fundamental particles?
No
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Which type of force/interaction do hadrons experience?
The strong force/interaction
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What are the two classes of hadrons?
Baryons and mesons
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What are the two types of baryon? (ie the only ones you need to know)
Protons and neutrons
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What is the only stable baryon?
Protons
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What do baryons decay into?
Protons
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What is baryon number?
A quantum number that must be conserved
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What is the baryon number of baryons?
+1
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What is the baryon number of antibaryons?
-1
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What is the baryon number of particles that aren't baryons?
0
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Mesons interact with baryons through which force?
The strong force
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What are the two subcategories of mesons?
Pions and kaons
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What is the lightest meson?
Pions
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What is the heaviest meson?
Kaons
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What is the exchange particle of the strong nuclear force?
Pions
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What do kaons decay into?
Pions
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Are leptons fundamental particles?
Yes
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Leptons interact with other particles via which type of interaction?
Weak interaction
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What are the four types of lepton?
Electrons, muons, electron neutrinos and muon neutrinos
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Which type of lepton is stable?
Electrons
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Which type of lepton is unstable?
Muons
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What do muons decay into?
Electrons
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Which type of interaction do neutrinos take part in?
Weak interaction
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What is lepton number?
A quantum number that must be conserved
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What is strangeness?
A quantum number that is conserved in strong interactions (ie one that doesn't involve a change in quark)
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Strange particles are produced through which type of interaction?
Strong interaction
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Strange particles decay through which type of interaction?
Weak interaction
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Why are strange particles produced in pairs?
Due to the fact that strangeness is conserved in strong interactions
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What is the strangeness of a strange particle
-1
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What is the quark composition of a proton?
up up down (uud)
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What is the quark composition of a neutron?
up down down (udd)
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What is the quark composition of a K^+ meson?
up anti-strange
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What is the quark composition of a K^- meson?
strange anti-up
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What is the quark composition of a K^0 meson?
down anti-strange OR strange anti-down
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What is the quark composition of a π^+ meson?
up anti-down
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What is the quark composition of a π^- meson?
down anti-up
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What is the quark composition of a π^0 meson?
up anti-up OR down anti-down OR strange anti-strange
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What is the equation for beta-minus decay?
neutron -> proton + electron + antineutrino
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Which gauge boson is involved in beta-minus decay?
W- boson
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What is the equation for beta-plus decay?
proton -> neutron + positron + neutrino
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Which gauge boson is involved in beta-plus decay?
W+ boson
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What is the equation for electron capture?
proton + electron -> neutron + neutrino
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Which gauge boson is involved in electron capture?
W+ boson
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What is the equation for electron-proton collisions?
proton + electron -> neutron + neutrino
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Which gauge boson is involved in electron-proton collisions?
W- boson
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What is the relative charge and relative mass of a neutron?

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Relative Charge: 0 Relative Mass: 1

Card 3

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What is the relative charge and relative mass of a electron?

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Card 4

Front

In nuclide notation, what does A represent?

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Card 5

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In nuclide notation, what does Z represent?

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