P1 (core)

as you go from gamma rays to radio waves, what wave features change
the wavelength increases and the frequency decreases
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what speed do electromagnetic waves travel at
300,000km per second
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what type of waves don't need particles to travel
transverse waves can travel in a vacuum without particles - like space
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what are the types of radiation in the electromagnetic spectrum, from shortest to longest wavelength
gamma rays, x-rays, UV rays, visible light, IR waves, microwaves, radiowaves
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what waves can heat water
microwaves
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how can microwaves be dangerous
they heat water and our bodies are mostly water.
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how can IR radiation be dangerous
IR radiation can be absorbed by our bodies and be felt as heat, too much can kill cells and cause burns
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what does silver chloride do when it reacts with light
breaks down to form a black colour
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what kind of radiation does the sun emit
electromagnetic
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what makes a wave more dangerous and why
higher frequency so there is more energy transfer
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what effect does UV radiation inflict on the body
energy from UV can transfer to our cells and damage DNA
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what can too much exposure to UV radiation lead to
skin cancer
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what electromagnetic wave can penetrate the body
gamma ray
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what effect does gamma radiation inflict on the body and what can it cause
can cause mutations or changes in DNA, may kill cells and cause cancer
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why is gamma radiation dangerous - explain
It is an ionising radiation which can ionise atoms and cause them to react, this reaction can damage DNA
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what can ionising radiation do to atoms
remove electrons from atoms to form ions
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What electromagnetic waves can be used in vision and photography and how
Visible light can be used - The EURion on bank notes can be seen when illuminated as it reflects certain wavelengths of visible light. These can be detected by our eyes, photo copiers, scanners, cameras and photogenic film.
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how can UV waves can be used in security
some materials can absorb and re-emit it as visible light (florescence). It is used for security markings on bank notes and property which can be checked by a uv lamp.
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how can x-rays be used in security
scanners at airports can use x-rays to detect hidden objects on people or in luggage
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how can IR radiation be used in security
In - R radiation is detected as heat from people and objects on cctv cameras so they can render images through fog and in the night.
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how can Radio waves and microwaves be used in communication
Radio waves are widely used for broadcasting and communication e.g tv signal, wifi. Microwaves can be used to carry tv signals and carry phone signals, including those from satellites
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How can IR waves be used in communication
IR waves can carry signals over short distances e.g from a remote to TV. They can also be sent down fibre cables for telephones and internet connections.
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How can microwaves be used in food
microwaves can be used to cook food as they heat up water
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how are gamma rays used in food
gamma rays transfer a lot of energy so they kill living organism's cells. This means that they can be used to sterilise medical instruments and food by killing microorganisms.
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how can gamma rays be used in medicine
it can kill cancer during radiotherapy. Chemical(s) can also be injected which emit gamma radiation, these can go into the cancer cells and emit the radiation, this can be detected by a scanner outside the body.
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What can large exposure to gamma radiation cause
cells to be destroyed
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what are elements that naturally emit gamma radiation called
radioactive
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Not all radioactive sources emit gamma rays, what would these emit
alpha or beta particles
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where are radiations from radioactive materials transferred to
surroundings
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What are alpha and beta particles
particles of matter that are emitted with a lot of kinetic ener
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what are the two types of wave
transverse and longitudinal
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what do waves transmit
energy and information, no material matter
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what doesn't move from the wave source
particles
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what is the wavelength of a wave
the distance of one complete cycle/oscillation (measured in meters or λ)
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what if the frequency of a wave
the number of oscillations per second (measured in Hertz or Hz)
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what is the amplitude of a wave
distance from the middle/zero line to the top of the crest or bottom of the trough
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what waves are transverse
seismic waves and electromagnetic waves
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what waves are longitude
seismic waves and sound waves
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what is the difference between convex and concave lenses
Convex lenses are thicker at the middle. Rays of light that pass through the lens are brought closer together (they converge). A convex lens is a converging lens. ... When parallel rays of light pass through a concave lens the refracted rays diverge
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what is the focal length
the distance between the center of the lens and the focal point
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what is the focal point
the point which rays or waves meet after a converging refraction or at which diverging rays appear to proceed
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how do you measure the focal length
using the converging lens to focus parallel rays of light from a distant scene onto a screen, measure the distance between the center of the lens and the screen.
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how did we used to view the night sky and what do we use now
we used to view the night sky using the naked eye; however, in the 16th century the telescope was invented, now days we use different types of telescopes
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what types of telescopes do we use to view the sky
radio telescopes, space telescopes and optical telescopes
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what are the advantages of radio telescopes
It can be used any time and in any weather condition as radio waves aren't blocked by clouds
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what are the disadvantages of radio telescopes
they are large and expensive
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what are the advantages of optical telescopes
they can view visible light
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what are the disadvantages of optical telescopes
They can only be used at night and the weather must be good
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what are the advantages of space telescopes
they can be used at any time and in any weather conditions, they can view infrared, gamma rays and x-rays as they aren't blocked by the Earth's atmosphere
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what are the disadvantages of space telescopes
they are expensive
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give an example of a space telescope
the Hubble telescope
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why do we no longer use the naked eye to study the universe
It only views visible light and can't see very far into space, unlike telescopes
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what was Ptolemy's model of the universe and what was it called
Ptolemy made the geocentric model of the solar system which showed Earth at the center of the universe, being orbited by the sun and all of the planets
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what was Copernicus' model of the universe and what was it called
Copernicus made the heliocentric model of the universe which showed the sun at the center, being orbited by Earth and the other planets
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what did Galileo discover as proof for the heliocentric model of the universe
Galileo discovered that Jupiter had 4 moons that orbited it which showed that not everything orbited the Earth.
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What new invention allowed Galileo to make this discovery
The optical telescope
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what is refraction
when the speed and direction of a wave changes
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what is reflection
the throwing back by a body or surface of light, heat, or sound without absorbing it
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What happens to a ray if it goes from a more dense medium to a less dense medium
bends away from the normal
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what happens to a ray if it goes from a less dense medium to a more dense medium
bends towards the normal
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what is commonly dual-used with telescopes
photography/camera
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why do scientists like to use photography
distant galaxies produce little light, photographs collect light for longer so we can see more light. It also allows scientists to compare images which can show movement
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why do we see more stars if we look through telescopes
telescopes gather more light (they have greater light gathering power than the eye) so we can see dimmer and further objects clearer.
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what wave was used to make early observations of the universe
visible light
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what waves do we use today to view the universe
radio waves and microwaves (and any other waves from the electromagnetic spectrum)
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what is a virtual image
a virtual image is magnified and right-side-up
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what is a real image
a real image is smaller than a virtual image and up-side-down
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why would you point a lens at a window when trying to produce an image
to collect enough light from a distant object
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how do reflecting telescopes produce an image
light is reflected to produce a real image which reflects towards the eyepiece and produces a virtual mage
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what image is formed by the objective lens of a refracting telescope
a real image - smaller than the object and up-side-down
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why are reflecting telescopes used over refracting telescopes
It is easier/cheaper to make big mirrors needed to collect more light. Some light is reflected in a refracting telescope so not all of it is refracted, this means that the image is blurry, unlike a reflecting telescope
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what are the disadvantages of refracting telescopes
Some light is reflected in a refracting telescope so not all of it is refracted, this means that the image is blurry. They also have to be large to have the right magnification and it's difficult/expensive to make large glass lenses.
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how do you work out wavespeed
frequency x wavelength
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

what speed do electromagnetic waves travel at

Back

300,000km per second

Card 3

Front

what type of waves don't need particles to travel

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what are the types of radiation in the electromagnetic spectrum, from shortest to longest wavelength

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what waves can heat water

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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