Organistion

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  • Created by: leo1223
  • Created on: 10-05-18 20:05
What is meant by a specialised cell?
A specialised cell is a cell that has differentiated from other types of cells for a specific function i.e sperm cell is a specialised cell as it contains a flagella so it can move unlike other cells
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What is meant by a tissue?
A tissue is a group of cells with a similar structure and function
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Name three types of tissue found in human bodies?
Muscular, glandular and epithelial tissue
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What is meant by a organ?
An organ is a group of different tissues which all work together to perform a specific job
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What are enzymes?
Enzymes are biological catalysts
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Describe the properties of enzymes?
Enzymes are large proteins, they each have a specific active site that is used to catalyse a specific reaction, they work best at a specific temperature and pH these are know as optimum conditions
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Explain the lock and key theory?
The lock and key theory is a model that explains how enzymes work; the chemical reacts at the substrate (key) and it fits into the enzyme's active site (lock)
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What makes a the active site of the enzyme change shape?
High temperatures and extreme pH levels (1 and 14) make the active site of enzymes change shape which is know as denaturing
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Describe how digestive enzymes catalyse large insoluble food molecules?
First the enzymes pass out of the cells into the digestive system, then they come into contact with food molecules and lastly they catalyse the large insoluble food molecules into smaller soluble molecules
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Name the three digestive enzymes
Protease, lipase and amylase
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Describe amylase?
Amylase is produced in the salivary glands causing digestion to take place in the mouth, it breaks down starch into sugar
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Describe protease?
Protease is produced in the stomach, pancreas and small intestine, breaks down proteins and amino acids
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Describe lipase?
Lipase is produced in the pancreas and small intestine, breaks down lipids (fats) into fatty acids and glycerol
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Describe what bile is?
Bile is a liquid made in the liver and stored in the gall bladder, it is a alkaline which neutralises the hydrochloric acid from the stomach, it also emulsifies fat to form small droplets which increases surface area for enzymes to act on
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How does bile increase the rate of which fat is broken down by lipase?
The alkaline conditions and increased surface area increase the rate at which fat is broken down by lipase
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Name all the components that make up the tissue know as blood?
Plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets
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Explain plasma's job within the blood?
Plasma transports various chemical substances around the body such as the products of digestion, carbon dioxide, urea, hormones and antibodies
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How are red blood cells are specialised for their specific function?
Contain haemoglobin which binds to oxygen, do not contain a nucleus so there is more room for haemoglobin, are very small so they can fit through small capillaries, biconcave shape gives a large surface area allowing oxygen to quickly diffuse
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How are white blood cells specialised for their specific function?
Can change shape allowing the cells to squeeze out of blood vessels into the tissues, their ability to change shape helps the white blood cells engulf microorganisms such as pathogens
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What are platelets?
Platelets are fragments of cells, which collect at wounds and trigger blood clotting
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Explain the process of how the heart pumps blood?
Blood enters through the atria, the atria contracts forcing the blood into the ventricles, valves make sure blood flows in correct direction, process is repeated
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Name all parts of the heart
Vena cava, left ventricle, valve, left atrium, pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, right ventricle, right atrium and aorta
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Where does the pulmonary artery go to?
To the lungs
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Where does the pulmonary vein come from?
from the lungs
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Where does the Vena cava come from?
From the body
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Where does the aorta go to?
To the lungs
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What controls the natural resting heart rate?
The natural resting heart rate is controlled by a group of cells located in the right atrium, which acts as a pacemaker
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What is gaseous exchange?
Gaseous exchange is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the alveoli and the blood capillaries
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How are the blood capillaries specialised for gaseous exchange?
Blood capillaries are close to the alveoli, so the distance the gas has to travel is short, also the blood capillaries have thin walls making it easier for the gas to diffuse
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How is the alveoli specialised for the process of gaseous exchange?
They have a large, moist surface area and they have a very rich blood supply
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What is the difference between a communicable disease and a non-communicable disease?
A communicable disease can be spread between organisms where as non-communicable diseases cannot
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What is meant by a risk factor?
A risk factor is a factor that often causes the development of diseases i.e lack of exercise leads to more diseases
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Explain what coronary heart disease is?
In coronary heart disease, layers of fatty material build up inside the coronary arteries and cause them to narrow. This decreases the amount of blood that is able to pass through
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Name two treatments for coronary heart disease and explain their effects?
Stents can be used to keep coronary arteries open, Stains reduce blood cholesterol levels and slow down rate at which fatty materials build up
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Explain a solution for faulty heart valves?
When heart valves fail; meaning they cannot open fully, they can be replaced with biological or mechanical valves
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Explain two solutions for heart failure?
A donor heart can be transplanted, artificial hearts can be used to keep patients alive while waiting for a heart transplant or to allow the heart to recover
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Name 3 lifestyle risk factors for cancer
smoking, obesity and UV exposure
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What are malignant tumours?
Malignant tumours spread to different parts of the body where they form secondary tumour, malignant tumours are very dangerous
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What are benign tumours?
Benign tumours do not spread around the body, they are less dangerous than malignant tumours
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What is the function of the epidermis tissue in a plant?
The epidermis covers the outer surfaces of the plant for protection
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What is the function of the palisade mesophyll tissue in a plant?
The palisade mesophyll is the main site for photosynthesis in the leaf
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What is the function of the spongy mesophyll tissue in a plant?
The spongy mesophyll is the air spaces between the cells that allows gasses to diffuse through the leaf
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What is the function of the xylem in a plant?
The xylem transports water and minerals through the plant, from the roots to leaves
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What is the function of the phloem in a plant?
The phloem transports dissolved food materials such as glucose through the plant
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What is the function of the meristem tissue in a plant?
The meristem is found mainly at the tips of the roots and shoots, where it is able to produce new cells from stem cells for growth
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Explain the process of water transportation within a plant?
Firstly water enters the plant from the soil, through the root hair cells, by osmosis. The water is then transported up the plant by the xylem cells to the leaves and other plant organs
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Where and how is water lost in a plant?
At the leaves, most of the water evaporates and diffuses out of the leaf through the stomata, the loss of water from the leaves is a process know as transpiration
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What is the name of the process where water is lost from the leaves?
Transpiration
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How does temperature affect transpiration?
An increase in temperature will result in a increase in the rate of transpiration as the process of evaporation is sped up
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How does air flow affect the rate of transpiration?
A faster air flow will result in a increase in the rate of transpiration as it blows away water vapour allowing more to evaporate
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How does light intensity affect the rate of transpiration?
An increase in light intensity will result in a increase in the rate of transpiration as it causes the stomata to open which speeds up the process of evaporation and diffusion
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How does humidity affect the rate of transpiration?
An increase in humidity will result in a decrease in the rate of transpiration as the air contains more water vapour, so the concentration gradient for diffusion is lower
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What is the function of the guard cell in the leaf?
The function of the guard cell is to open and close the stomata
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Describe what happens to the stomata at night?
At night the stomata are closed. This is because carbon dioxide is not needed as photosynthesis does not occur at night, so closing the stomata reduces overall water loss
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Describe what happens in the leaf when water is plentiful in a plant?
When water is plentiful, guard cells take up water and bend. this causes the stomata to open, so gases used for photosynthesis are free to move in and out of the stomata along with water from transpiration
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Describe what happens in the leaf when water is scarce?
When water is scarce, losing water makes the stomata change shape and close. This stops the plant from losing more water through transpiration
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What is meant by the process of translocation?
Translocation is the movement of food through the phloem tissue
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What is meant by a tissue?

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Card 4

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What is meant by a organ?

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Card 5

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