Non-verbal Communication

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Argyle, Alkema and Gilmour
Tone of Voice: Friendly/hostile messages in a friendly/hostile tone of voice. Participants asked to interpret message- tone of voice had 5x the effect of the actual message itself.
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Davitz and Davitz
Paralinguistics: Their effect on emotion. Participants listened to tape recordings and assessed speakers' emotions from paralinguistics cues (tone of voice, emphasis, intonation). High level in recognising affection, amusement, disgust and fear.
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Kendon
Eye Contact: Eye movement affecting the flow of conversation. Pairs of participants were asked to get acquainted and were observed. Eye movements signal taking turns in the conversation.
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Argyle
Eye Contact: Interrupting eye contact affects conversation. Pairs of participants having conversation. In half, one participant wore dark glasses. In this half the conversation was not a smooth.
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Hess
Pupil Dilation: Its effect on emotion. Participants shown the same picture of a girl except in one her pupils were dilated. Asked which was more attractive. The majority went for pupils dilated but couldn't say why. Unconscious but powerful effect.
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Sackeim
Facial Expression: Facial Expression and hemispheres of the brain. Pictures of face cut down the centre and mirrored. The left half of the face and its reflection was liked more as it was 'warmer'. The left side of the face expresses more emotion.
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McGinley
Posture: Effect of postural echo in conversation. Confederate approached people and in half of the conversation, echoed their posture. He was like more when he did. Postural echo gives an unconscious message of friendliness.
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McGinley, Lefevre and McGinley
Open/Closed Posture: Effect in conversation. Confederate approached participants. In half of the conversations, had closed posture and in the other had open. When showing closed posture the confederate was seen as less friendly and less attractive.
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Lynn and Mynier
Gestures: The effect when used by waiters on the tips from customers at a restaurant. Waiters told to either squat or stand when taking orders. Larger tips given when squatting down near seated customer.
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Fisher, Rytting and Heslin:
Touch: Effect on people's attitudes. Female students handed books by confederate librarian. Half were briefly touched.These had a more positive attitude towards him but weren't aware they'd been touched. Touch can have a positive unconscious effect.
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Argyle and Dean
Personal Space: Sex differences. Participants sat with confederate. Sometimes the same sex. Participants broke eye contact at a greater difference apart when the confederate was of opposite sex. Point where personal space is being invaded.
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Willis
Personal Space: Effect of age. Observed 800 individuals. Tend to stand closer to people of own age than to people much older/younger. Age diffrences affects how close we stand to one another.
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Williams
Personal Space: Effect of personality. Students identified as extrovert or introvert. Sent to office to get college grades. Introverts sat further away from their tutor. Extrovert/introvert will affect the use of personal space
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Summer
Personal Space: Effect of cultural differences. Observed groups of white English and groups of Arab people in conversations. Arabic people stood much closer to each other. the use of personal space in normal conversation varies with cultures.
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Zahn
Personal Space: Effect of status. Observed people of equal and unequal status having a conversation. People of lower status did not approach higher status people with the same degree of closeness as those of equal status.
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Card 2

Front

Paralinguistics: Their effect on emotion. Participants listened to tape recordings and assessed speakers' emotions from paralinguistics cues (tone of voice, emphasis, intonation). High level in recognising affection, amusement, disgust and fear.

Back

Davitz and Davitz

Card 3

Front

Eye Contact: Eye movement affecting the flow of conversation. Pairs of participants were asked to get acquainted and were observed. Eye movements signal taking turns in the conversation.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Eye Contact: Interrupting eye contact affects conversation. Pairs of participants having conversation. In half, one participant wore dark glasses. In this half the conversation was not a smooth.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Pupil Dilation: Its effect on emotion. Participants shown the same picture of a girl except in one her pupils were dilated. Asked which was more attractive. The majority went for pupils dilated but couldn't say why. Unconscious but powerful effect.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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