• Created by: Sarah
  • Created on: 28-02-17 11:24
what are peduncles?
connections from the pons to the cerebellum
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what disease does the substantia nigra have a role in?
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what role does the reticular activating system have?
circadian rhythm or alertness
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what does the thalamus do?
important processing centre all special senses except smell.
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what does the pineal gland do?
endocrine gland secretes melatonin and serotonin
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what are the 3 meninges?
dira mater, arachnoid space and pia mater
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what do olives do?
send processes from the medulla oblongata to cerebellum
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how many peduncles is on there on each side?
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3 primary brain vesicles?
PMR= procephalon, mescenphalon + rhombocepehalon
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what is reticular formation?
a group of neurons in brainstem and above with similar roles either cvs or RAS
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what becomes the midbrain?
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which brain vesicle develops into the thalamus + hypothalamus?
diencephalon (
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what brain vesicle forms the cerebral hemispheres?
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What primary brain vesicle turns in to the diencephalon and telecephalon?
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4 major parts of the brain?
Cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem and Diencephalon
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3 parts of the brainstem?
Medulla oblongata, mesencephalon and pons
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3 things CSF provides?
1) Protection from mechanical shock 2) reduces weight of CNS can float 3) info about state of NS
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where is CSF found?
central canal, brain ventricles and subarachnoid space
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How is CSF extracted?
lumbnar puncture of the spinal column between the 3rd and 4th lumbnar vetebrae
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what is the disorder fro CSF which is external surfaces?
Hydrocephalus- Water on the brain
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the dorsal root carries what?
sensory info
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3 roles of the astrocytes?
1) spatial buffering (K ions) 2) neurotransmitter uptake (glutamate-> glutamine) 3) glucose metabolism (glucose -> lactic acid)
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what do microglia do?
phagocytotic- remove damaged and debris
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what evidence suggests MS can be iniated from the environment?
clusters geographically and migration studies, distribution suggests environment (vit D near equator lower) and herpes cause
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what is radial glias classical role?
helping movement of cells in development
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what can bergmann glia cells do?
stem cell like can turn into other cell types
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what do olfactory granule cells have none of?
axons (they're anaxonic) xonnections dendrite to dendrite
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what do fibrous astrocytes have many of?
many intermediate filaments
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who mapped the motor cortex in dogs?
Hitzig and Fritsch
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what type of axons is golgi type 1?
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what is the limbic system?
brain areas associated with memory's, emotions and motivation
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what do comissural fibres connect?
the 2 hemispheres
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what is the right hemisphere responsible for?
creativity/artistic, spatial mapping, conceptual (ability to grasp concepts)
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where was Phineas Gage damaged?
frontallobes changed personality
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how many lobes does the cerebrum have?
functionally 6, 4 on surface
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what immunosupressant drug is used to treat ms?
cyclophosphamide (increased infection but decreases remission)
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Who came up with the bead one trial learning with chicks that pecked a horrible bead?
Steven Rose
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what does the nerst equation calculate?
equilibrium potential
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Roles of the cerebellum?
motor coordination, regulation and monitoring, motor error checking,learns patterns
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what is the disease associated with loss of cerebellar neurons?
cerebellar ataxia
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what is associated with the left hemisphere?
analysis, speech and calculations
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what is inferior collicus responsible for?
auditory reflexes
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who came up with the canon of internal medicine?
Huang Ti
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who did transplantation between the quail and chick to see if connections would still form?
Nichole le Davarin
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what is the enteric NS?
neural cells of the viscera, can be classified as the PNS
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how many pairs of peripheral cranial nerves?
12 pairs
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what does the goldman equation calculate?
the resting membrane potential
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what senses are well developed at birth?
taste and smell
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where is the tectum found?
the mesencephalon (part of brainstem)
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superior colliculus (in tectum of mesencephalon) is response for what?
visual reflexes
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what does the fact that the extent of myelin is different with experience suggest?
it may have a role in memory and learning
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what cell outnumbers other cell types?
cerebellar granule cell
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what's the difference between schwann cells and oligos?
schwann PNS + wrap around individual axons, can surround all axons in a nerve but not myelinate them but oligos is CNS and branches wrap around diff axons
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what is the percentage of water in myelin sheath?
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what is the set distance between the linked external and internal proteins called?
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why is the periodicity in the PNS 11.9nm but only 10.7nm in the CNS?
different myelin in CNS + PNS
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what does myelin look like? why?
light and dark bands because of way it forms cytoplasm is very thin so there's hardly and distance between membranes so they fuse
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what kind of line does the internal proteins show? what is the period called?
a dense line and major period
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how much dry lipid is in myelin?
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what happens if you knock cebrosides out in mice?
myelin forms but develops gaps (vacuoles) outsides not as densely packed as it should be, paralysis in aged animals
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where is more vunerable in the brain to MS demyelination?
white matter near spaces/ventricles (periventricular)
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what is cerbrosides?
any type of complex lipid present in the sheaths in nerve fibres
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what does the PNS have less of?
lipids: sulfatide and cerebroside
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what does the CNS have more of?
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2 CNS proteins
proteolipid protein and myelin basic protein
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when is the onset of MS?
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What therapy is used for MS?
steroids (relief), immunosupressants, antibodies, haemopotic stem cells, diet and inteferons
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what do you need to intake more of in your diet if you have MS?
Vitamin D
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What antibodies are used for MS to target immune cells selectively?
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what suggests MS is genetic?
monozygotic twins 30% concordance rate, linkage studies associate immune system, higher in females + caucasians
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when is the critical period in development for the structure of the eys? what caused if goes wrong?
6th weels. Cataracts caused by rubella
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what is the natural mutation of the jimpy mouse due to?
very little myelin so die early, severe loss of oligodendrocytes, PLP produced is toxic to neyrons
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what is the milder phenotype of the jimpy mouse?
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what type of mice cant form Myelin Basic Protein so die early? as they can't suckle?
shiverer mice
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what does MBP induce in other animals?
experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (model for MS)
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what are the 4 other CNS myelin proteins that are enzyes?
1) Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 2) proteases 3) lipid metabolism 4) carbonic anhydrase
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how many months in development can you see the major lobes in the cerebrum?
7 months
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when does CNS myelination begin?
5 months
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why is vison less well developed at birth?
optic nerve is not myelinated(devoccular dominance columns develop by 6 months see sharper)
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when do heart malformations happen in development?
5th to 10th weeks
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what do association fibres connect?
parts of one hemisphere to the same hemisphere
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where are the basal ganglia?
deep within the hemispheres
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what makes up the basal ganglia?
caudate+putamen (striatum), globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra
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what do projection fibres connect?
cerebral hemispheres to non cortical areas
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what are the 3 main types of glia cells?
1)macroglia 2) microglia and 3) ependymal
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what did sherrington do?
looked at reflexes, motot control + defined the synapse
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features of macroglia?
astrocytes: fibrous, protoplasmic, oligos, schwann cells
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What cells take up K at the photoreceptors?
muller cells
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what are the types of ependymal cells? what do they do?
tonocytes: found in regions eg hypothalmus have specific roles, ependymocytes: majority ciliated, choroid epithelial cells: CSF formation
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what are microglia derived from?
blood circulating monocytes
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what are the 3 classifications of the NS?
CNS, PNS + Enteric NS (NS to do with gut) when 2 classified enteric part of PNS
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how many peripheral nerves are there that enter/exit the brain+SC?
43 pairs
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What is the structure of nerves in the PNS?
has axons, no dendrites, no neuronal cell bodies, most are mixed
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what surrounds the PNS nerves?
endoneurium surrounds (mechanical support), bundled by perineurium (wraps indiv axons into bundles) into fasicles whole thing enclosed weith blood vessels by epineurium
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who discovered calcium release was impotant in release of transmitters?
Katz and Miledi
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what are all spinal nerves?
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what are dermatones?
all spinal nerves send branches out round body to innervate, an area of the skin supplied by nerves from a single spinal root.
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where do the ganglia sit for the sympathetic system?
near the spinal cord
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who thought animal spirits were in the ventricles travelled to tissues + wss possibly the first to use animals?
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what si the chain formed by the sympathetic ganglia called?
Paroverebral ganglia forming sympathetic chain
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How is the sympathetic system amplified?
has 1-20+ pre: post ganglionic neres. 1 cell in SC can impact 20+ in the ganglion
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how does the mutation in PNS protein PMP 22 cause charot marie tooth 1a?
it changes the loops near the nodes of ranvier so they're not as well attached
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who suggested using the squid axon
J Z Young
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P0 accounts for how much of PNS proteins? what is it?
50% a protein that is an adhesion molecule, schwann cell membranes together, lacks compaction less dense
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what does mutations in P0 cause?
charcot marie tooth 1b
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who searched for the engram using rates in mazes and ablation studies?
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what are most post ganglionic parasympathetic receptors? what neurotransmitter?
cholinergic, acetylcholine
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why is the C elegan used in neuroscience models?
electrophysiology use, NS mapped, genome mapped 131 genes and genetic reg of behaviours
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who looked at nerve conduction velocity?
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Al Zahen was responsible for what?
looking at the eye as an imaging system
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name 3 treatments came from using animal models?
parkinsons, retinal/cochlear transplants and epilepsy
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name 3 diseases looked at with animal models in neuroscience?
SAP schizophrenia, alzeheimers and parkinsons
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properties of peripheral nerves?
axons not dendrites, no cell bodies and msotly mixed
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how many pairs of peripheral nerves going in and out of the SC are there?
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what bundles nerve fibers into fasicles?
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what are all spinal nerves?
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what is cranial nerve 10?
Vagus nerve
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what are dermatones?
the areas of the body innervated by the spinal nerves
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what do dermatones shown?
neurologists sites of damage
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what is the nerve fibres enclosed with blood vessel with?
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how many peripheral cranial nerves are there?
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Cranial nerves 3 to 7 are what?
from the forebrain
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what is RAMI? whats it important for?
spinal nerve branch, important for patterns of regulation
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what are the divisions of the PNS split into?
somatic and visceral, afferent and efferent
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what are most post ganglionic sympathetic receptors? what hormone?
adrenergic (noradrenaline/adrenaline)
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are pre or post ganglionic neurons usually myelinated?
usually pre ganglionic
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how do autonomic efferents work?
connect with other cells in a ganglion-this cell innervates muscles/glands
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what do somatic efferent axons go straight to?
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sympathetic ganglia are close to what?
close to spinal cord
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what does the diencephalon form?
thalamus, hypothalamus, subthalamus, pineal gland
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what are interneurons important in?
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external disturbance of flow of CSF causes what?
hydroencephaly,blockages, swelling of vesicles blood supply compromised
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way to remember how a transverse section is cut?
you can pull it up and down the body like trousers
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name parts of the mesencephalon?
substania nigra, reticular formation, nucleus ruber, tectum,cerebral pefuncles
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what are the substantia nigra and nucleus ruber involved in?
the regulation of movement
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what is the 3 parts to the reticular activating system
Circadian rhythm, alertness and emotions
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what does the diencephalon contain?
thalamus, hypothalamus,pineal gland
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what part of the brain is the diencephalon in?
forebrain (links midbrain and cerebrum)
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what special sense does the thalamus NOT process?
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what is the thalamus roles?
motor role, arousal + emotion, higher functions, processing and relay centre
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what is it called when you see sounds?
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Hypothalamus role?
eating, drinking, sexual behaviour, stress
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what are sulci?
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what are the 6 main lobes?
frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, central (insula(+), limbic
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where is wernickes area?
posterior temporal lobe
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defect in wernickes area causses what?
receptive aphasia
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what makes up the corpus striatum?
caudate + putamen
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what do pyrimidal cells contain many of?
apical dendrites
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features of olfactory cells?
they are bipolar with cilia, have to be replaced throughout life, no axons as have dendrodendricitic synapses
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the glia limitan is formed by astrocytes between what?
between pia mater and cerebral cortex
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what is the glia limitans?
a thin layer of astrocyte foot processes associated with the parachymal basal lamina surrounding SC and brain
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what does the metencephalon form?
pons and cerebellum
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what do bergmann cells do? where are they found?
adult brain stem cells, span in cerebellum, span from pia to purkinje cell
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astrocytes act like syncytium which allow spatial buffering, whats a syncytium?
fused (but not fused) multinucleate
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what mutants do you get with PLP?
jimpy & rumpshaker
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what are the enzymes in the CNS?
carbonic anhydrase, cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase,Ig (MOG + MAG) lipid metabolism, proteases
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what are the proteins in the PNS?
P0, MBP and PMP-22
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what does a mutation in the P0 protein cause?
charcot marie tooth syndrome 1b
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what does chemical activity provide?
chemical neurotransmitters allow flexibility eg inhibition
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what is the difference in how infomation is coded by action potentials and graded potentials?
action potentials- frequency graded potentials- size
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what are the properties of graded potentials?
variable in size, not pass over long distances, can go both ways
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what do astrocytes enwrap?
oricesses, synapses and blood vessels
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what is an example of a bipolar neuron?
bipolar retinal cells
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what are type 1 golgi?
long axons
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what is an example of a unipolar neuron?
dorsal root ganglion
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where are fibrous astrocytes found?
white matter
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are protoplasmic or fibrous astrocytes shorter?
protoplasmic usually shorter stouter processes
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what are examples of multipolar axons?
motor neurons, cerebellar granule cells, pyramidal cells and purkinje cells
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what dendritic field do motor neurons have?
a symmetrical dendritic field
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what happens when astrocytes uptake transmitters?
glutamate into astrocytes, Y amino butryic acid
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3 types of ependyma?
tanycytes, ependmocytes
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which is not a secondary brain vesicle?
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name the association fibres?
arcuate fibres,longlitudinal fasciculli
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what does the telecephalon form?
cerebral hemispheres containing cortex, basal ganglia, hippocampus, corpus striatum,
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the proscephalon splits into what?
DT- dicephalon and telecephalon
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what are the 5 secondary vesicles?
dicepehlon, telecephalon, myetecepholon, mescenphalon and metencephalon
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what does the myencephalon form?
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what does the deiencephalon form?
thalamus,hypothalamus, pineal gland, subthalamus, optic nerve
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name a region where tonocytes are found?
in the hippocampus
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what dendritic field do purkinje cells have?
planar dendritic field
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what are temporal summations?
potentials add up over time
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what are spatial summation?
multiple stimulus gives larger EPSP
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what do lidocaine and tetrodoxin target?
Na channels
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what can reduce aps in graded potentials?
chloride flow, inhibitory post synaptic potentials
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when do IPSP have no effect?
resting potentials
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features of metabotropic?
slower more complex, signal amplification, multiple channels affected, modulators
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what makes a dense line on myelin?
linked INternal proteins (MAJOR period)
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what is the periocidity of the CNS?
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how much of myelin is made up of water?
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a defect in what causes jimpy mouse and rumpshaker?
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what is injecting MBP and inducing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis a model for?
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what are the other CNS Myelin protein that are Ig like moleucles?
MOG, MAG and oligo-axon communication
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what areas are vunerable to MS?
periventricular white matter, holey bits
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what does guillan barre syndrome happen as a result of? example?
after viral/bac infection eg capylobacter jejuni
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what does guillan barre syndrome cause?
acute inflammatory response, primary demyelination
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name commisural fibres?
internal capsule, interior commisure, corpus callosum
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what happens at 7 months of developments?
lobed cerebrum
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when myeln starts to form the composition changes and theres an increase in what?
galactolipids and protein components
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fetal alcohol syndrome consequences?
microcephaly, motor+intellectual impairment, disturbed migration, irritability, loss of cells and fibres, facial abnormaities
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Consequences of ecstasy?
long term effects on hippocampus
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what is the speed of conduction at 6-12m
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how many weeks does the DRG connect to the spinal cord (non noxious)?
8 weeks
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how many weeks is there connections from the thalamus to cortex and cortical responses shown by imaging?
24 weeks
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when do the retinal inputs arrive?
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when does rooting (****** seeking) go?
4-7 months
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what are vesicles?
fluid filled swellings at the rostral end of the tube?
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name dura layers inside out
dueral mater (menigeal layer), dura sinus, dura mater (endosteal layer)
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brainstem important why?
housekeeping nuclei, decussation, ascending and decensding tract
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what is the pyramidal tract (brainstem) made up of?
mostly motor fibres
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what are the major features of the medulla oblongata?
fibre tracts, nuceli for CVS+resp, olives to link to cerebellum, nerve roots
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what is the difference between olives and peduncles as both make connections to the cerebellum?
cerebellum peduncles- pons, olives- medulla oblongata
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roles of the cerebellum?
muscle tone, co-ordination motor error checking and learning
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mesencephalon made up of what?
tectum (colliculi) substantia nigra, nucleus ruber
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what part of the brain has cerebral peduncles?
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reticular activating system 3 roles?
circadian rhythm,alertness,emotion
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reticular formation involves?
RAS, CVS, and brainstem neuron clusters
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diencephalon contains?
thalamus, hypothalamus, pineal
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roles of thalamus not including sensory processing?
motor role, arousal, emotional and higher functions
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what is the PNS made up of?
nerves AND cell bodies to/from brain+SC
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some PNS cells are found somewhere else, where?
PNS cells lie in the CNS eg neurons innervating muscle (motorneurons)
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how many pairs of peripheral nerves enter exit the brain+SC?
43 pairs
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tetraethylammonium (TEA) poison blocks which channels?
K channels
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para and sympathetic use what neurotransmitter for pre ganglionic?
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what neurotransmitter for post ganglionic symapthetic?
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what is the speed of small unmyelinated axons (0.2-1.5um?
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what pump uses up 70% of the energy in the brain?
K/N ATPase pump
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why so many unmyelinated small axons?
because the space constant (high m resistance is reduced by high internal resistance) metabolic +volume constraints
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why does diameter influence the conduction velocity?
resistance is inversely proprotional to cross sectional area of the axon
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what does myelination do to the space constant?
increases it
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what is the space constant?
the distance from site of depolarization where it has fallen to 37%
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whats the max speed of squid axons?
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2 types of electrical signals?
1) action potentials 2) graded potentials
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what do graded potentials work by?
excitatory post synaptic potentials
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examples of electrical synapse places?
cardiac and smooth muscle, retinal neuronal
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selectivity of membrane provided by what?
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unequal charge distribution provided by what?
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what is the rising phase?
inside -ve, there is a large driving force of Na rushes into cell depolarising it
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what is the overshoot?
where equilibrium is above 0mv, its where the permeability of the membrane favours sodium, close to sodium equilibrium potential
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what is the absolute refractory period?
no aps generated for period of time as Na channels inactivated, membrane needs to be -ve again to deactivate
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what is he undershoot?
open voltage gated K channels add to the resting potential permeability, toward EK
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what the relative refractory period?
stronger stimulus needed to generate an ap, threshold is higher
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what happens in the falling phase?
voltage gated K channels open and k ions rush out, sodium channels inacitvate
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what is the ionic driving force proportional to?
membrane potential - equilibrium potential
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what causes channels to open?
a stimulus eg activation of a stretch or thermal receptor or an excitatory chemical neurotransmitter
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what explains why an action potential is so quick?
rapid inactivation of vg sodium channels in1 msec
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whats another name for voltage gated potassium channels?
delayed rectifying channels
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what kind of junction is the chemical junction?
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how big is the synaptic cleft/gap?
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what kind of infomation processing do syanpses allow?
flexible, elaborate, subtle and complex
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how do synapses change?
can shrink, grow, move position, change shape
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what do larger synapses usually have more of?
active zones
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4 Types of synapses?
axodendritic, axosomatic, axoaxonic, dedndrodendritic
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3 types of transmittrs?
acetylcholine, amino acids, biogenic amines
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what amino acid transmitters are there?
aspartic acid, GABA, glycine and glutamic acid
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steps of transmission in order?
1) synthesis 2) storage 3) relase 4) postsynaptic effects 5) inactivation
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where are neuropeptides synthesised? what are they stored in?
syn in soma, stored in secretory granules
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what neurotransmiters are synthesised and packed at the synaptic terminal?
Acetylcholine, amines and amini acids
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where does calcium move in synaptic transmission?
inside the axon
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what is the concentration of calcium outside in synaptic transmission/
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how much neurotransmitter does synaptic vesicles contain?
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how is a qunata established?
the vesicles at a synapse release nearly the same amount of neurotransmitter each time
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2 main types of receptors in synaptic transmission?
1) ligand-gated ion channel (ionotropic) 2) G-protein coupled receptor (metabotropic)
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who figured out that Ach was released from motor nerves using dogs, cats and frogs?
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What did Loewi do?
chemical neurotransmission found Vagustoff in dogs
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who defined the synapse using CAD (cats apes dogs?)
Sherrington. [also looked at motor control, relefexes+ localisation]
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who formulated receptor, named the ANS theory using CD and rabbits?
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what disease does the substantia nigra have a role in?



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what role does the reticular activating system have?


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what does the thalamus do?


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what does the pineal gland do?


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