what are peduncles?
connections from the pons to the cerebellum
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what disease does the substantia nigra have a role in?
2 of 266
what role does the reticular activating system have?
circadian rhythm or alertness
3 of 266
what does the thalamus do?
important processing centre all special senses except smell.
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what does the pineal gland do?
endocrine gland secretes melatonin and serotonin
5 of 266
what are the 3 meninges?
dira mater, arachnoid space and pia mater
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what do olives do?
send processes from the medulla oblongata to cerebellum
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how many peduncles is on there on each side?
8 of 266
3 primary brain vesicles?
PMR= procephalon, mescenphalon + rhombocepehalon
9 of 266
what is reticular formation?
a group of neurons in brainstem and above with similar roles either cvs or RAS
10 of 266
what becomes the midbrain?
11 of 266
which brain vesicle develops into the thalamus + hypothalamus?
12 of 266
what brain vesicle forms the cerebral hemispheres?
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What primary brain vesicle turns in to the diencephalon and telecephalon?
14 of 266
4 major parts of the brain?
Cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem and Diencephalon
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3 parts of the brainstem?
Medulla oblongata, mesencephalon and pons
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3 things CSF provides?
1) Protection from mechanical shock 2) reduces weight of CNS can float 3) info about state of NS
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where is CSF found?
central canal, brain ventricles and subarachnoid space
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How is CSF extracted?
lumbnar puncture of the spinal column between the 3rd and 4th lumbnar vetebrae
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what is the disorder fro CSF which is external surfaces?
Hydrocephalus- Water on the brain
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the dorsal root carries what?
21 of 266
3 roles of the astrocytes?
1) spatial buffering (K ions) 2) neurotransmitter uptake (glutamate-> glutamine) 3) glucose metabolism (glucose -> lactic acid)
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what do microglia do?
phagocytotic- remove damaged and debris
23 of 266
what evidence suggests MS can be iniated from the environment?
clusters geographically and migration studies, distribution suggests environment (vit D near equator lower) and herpes cause
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what is radial glias classical role?
helping movement of cells in development
25 of 266
what can bergmann glia cells do?
stem cell like can turn into other cell types
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what do olfactory granule cells have none of?
axons (they're anaxonic) xonnections dendrite to dendrite
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what do fibrous astrocytes have many of?
many intermediate filaments
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who mapped the motor cortex in dogs?
Hitzig and Fritsch
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what type of axons is golgi type 1?
30 of 266
what is the limbic system?
brain areas associated with memory's, emotions and motivation
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what do comissural fibres connect?
the 2 hemispheres
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what is the right hemisphere responsible for?
creativity/artistic, spatial mapping, conceptual (ability to grasp concepts)
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where was Phineas Gage damaged?
frontallobes changed personality
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how many lobes does the cerebrum have?
functionally 6, 4 on surface
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what immunosupressant drug is used to treat ms?
cyclophosphamide (increased infection but decreases remission)
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Who came up with the bead one trial learning with chicks that pecked a horrible bead?
37 of 266
what does the nerst equation calculate?
38 of 266
Roles of the cerebellum?
motor coordination, regulation and monitoring, motor error checking,learns patterns
39 of 266
what is the disease associated with loss of cerebellar neurons?
40 of 266
what is associated with the left hemisphere?
analysis, speech and calculations
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what is inferior collicus responsible for?
42 of 266
who came up with the canon of internal medicine?
43 of 266
who did transplantation between the quail and chick to see if connections would still form?
Nichole le Davarin
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what is the enteric NS?
neural cells of the viscera, can be classified as the PNS
45 of 266
how many pairs of peripheral cranial nerves?
46 of 266
what does the goldman equation calculate?
the resting membrane potential
47 of 266
what senses are well developed at birth?
taste and smell
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where is the tectum found?
the mesencephalon (part of brainstem)
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superior colliculus (in tectum of mesencephalon) is response for what?
50 of 266
what does the fact that the extent of myelin is different with experience suggest?
it may have a role in memory and learning
51 of 266
what cell outnumbers other cell types?
cerebellar granule cell
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what's the difference between schwann cells and oligos?
schwann PNS + wrap around individual axons, can surround all axons in a nerve but not myelinate them but oligos is CNS and branches wrap around diff axons
53 of 266
what is the percentage of water in myelin sheath?
54 of 266
what is the set distance between the linked external and internal proteins called?
55 of 266
why is the periodicity in the PNS 11.9nm but only 10.7nm in the CNS?
different myelin in CNS + PNS
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what does myelin look like? why?
light and dark bands because of way it forms cytoplasm is very thin so there's hardly and distance between membranes so they fuse
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what kind of line does the internal proteins show? what is the period called?
a dense line and major period
58 of 266
how much dry lipid is in myelin?
59 of 266
what happens if you knock cebrosides out in mice?
myelin forms but develops gaps (vacuoles) outsides not as densely packed as it should be, paralysis in aged animals
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where is more vunerable in the brain to MS demyelination?
white matter near spaces/ventricles (periventricular)
61 of 266
what is cerbrosides?
any type of complex lipid present in the sheaths in nerve fibres
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what does the PNS have less of?
lipids: sulfatide and cerebroside
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what does the CNS have more of?
64 of 266
2 CNS proteins
proteolipid protein and myelin basic protein
65 of 266
when is the onset of MS?
66 of 266
What therapy is used for MS?
steroids (relief), immunosupressants, antibodies, haemopotic stem cells, diet and inteferons
67 of 266
what do you need to intake more of in your diet if you have MS?
68 of 266
What antibodies are used for MS to target immune cells selectively?
69 of 266
what suggests MS is genetic?
monozygotic twins 30% concordance rate, linkage studies associate immune system, higher in females + caucasians
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when is the critical period in development for the structure of the eys? what caused if goes wrong?
6th weels. Cataracts caused by rubella
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what is the natural mutation of the jimpy mouse due to?
very little myelin so die early, severe loss of oligodendrocytes, PLP produced is toxic to neyrons
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what is the milder phenotype of the jimpy mouse?
73 of 266
what type of mice cant form Myelin Basic Protein so die early? as they can't suckle?
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what does MBP induce in other animals?
experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (model for MS)
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what are the 4 other CNS myelin proteins that are enzyes?
1) Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 2) proteases 3) lipid metabolism 4) carbonic anhydrase
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how many months in development can you see the major lobes in the cerebrum?
77 of 266
when does CNS myelination begin?
78 of 266
why is vison less well developed at birth?
optic nerve is not myelinated(devoccular dominance columns develop by 6 months see sharper)
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when do heart malformations happen in development?
5th to 10th weeks
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what do association fibres connect?
parts of one hemisphere to the same hemisphere
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where are the basal ganglia?
deep within the hemispheres
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what makes up the basal ganglia?
caudate+putamen (striatum), globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra
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what do projection fibres connect?
cerebral hemispheres to non cortical areas
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what are the 3 main types of glia cells?
1)macroglia 2) microglia and 3) ependymal
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what did sherrington do?
looked at reflexes, motot control + defined the synapse
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features of macroglia?
astrocytes: fibrous, protoplasmic, oligos, schwann cells
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What cells take up K at the photoreceptors?
88 of 266
what are the types of ependymal cells? what do they do?
tonocytes: found in regions eg hypothalmus have specific roles, ependymocytes: majority ciliated, choroid epithelial cells: CSF formation
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what are microglia derived from?
blood circulating monocytes
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what are the 3 classifications of the NS?
CNS, PNS + Enteric NS (NS to do with gut) when 2 classified enteric part of PNS
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how many peripheral nerves are there that enter/exit the brain+SC?
92 of 266
What is the structure of nerves in the PNS?
has axons, no dendrites, no neuronal cell bodies, most are mixed
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what surrounds the PNS nerves?
endoneurium surrounds (mechanical support), bundled by perineurium (wraps indiv axons into bundles) into fasicles whole thing enclosed weith blood vessels by epineurium
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who discovered calcium release was impotant in release of transmitters?
Katz and Miledi
95 of 266
what are all spinal nerves?
96 of 266
what are dermatones?
all spinal nerves send branches out round body to innervate, an area of the skin supplied by nerves from a single spinal root.
97 of 266
where do the ganglia sit for the sympathetic system?
near the spinal cord
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who thought animal spirits were in the ventricles travelled to tissues + wss possibly the first to use animals?
99 of 266
what si the chain formed by the sympathetic ganglia called?
Paroverebral ganglia forming sympathetic chain
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How is the sympathetic system amplified?
has 1-20+ pre: post ganglionic neres. 1 cell in SC can impact 20+ in the ganglion
101 of 266
how does the mutation in PNS protein PMP 22 cause charot marie tooth 1a?
it changes the loops near the nodes of ranvier so they're not as well attached
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who suggested using the squid axon
J Z Young
103 of 266
P0 accounts for how much of PNS proteins? what is it?
50% a protein that is an adhesion molecule, schwann cell membranes together, lacks compaction less dense
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what does mutations in P0 cause?
charcot marie tooth 1b
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who searched for the engram using rates in mazes and ablation studies?
106 of 266
what are most post ganglionic parasympathetic receptors? what neurotransmitter?
107 of 266
why is the C elegan used in neuroscience models?
electrophysiology use, NS mapped, genome mapped 131 genes and genetic reg of behaviours
108 of 266
who looked at nerve conduction velocity?
109 of 266
Al Zahen was responsible for what?
looking at the eye as an imaging system
110 of 266
name 3 treatments came from using animal models?
parkinsons, retinal/cochlear transplants and epilepsy
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name 3 diseases looked at with animal models in neuroscience?
SAP schizophrenia, alzeheimers and parkinsons
112 of 266
properties of peripheral nerves?
axons not dendrites, no cell bodies and msotly mixed
113 of 266
how many pairs of peripheral nerves going in and out of the SC are there?
114 of 266
what bundles nerve fibers into fasicles?
115 of 266
what are all spinal nerves?
116 of 266
what is cranial nerve 10?
117 of 266
what are dermatones?
the areas of the body innervated by the spinal nerves
118 of 266
what do dermatones shown?
neurologists sites of damage
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what is the nerve fibres enclosed with blood vessel with?
120 of 266
how many peripheral cranial nerves are there?
121 of 266
Cranial nerves 3 to 7 are what?
from the forebrain
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what is RAMI? whats it important for?
spinal nerve branch, important for patterns of regulation
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what are the divisions of the PNS split into?
somatic and visceral, afferent and efferent
124 of 266
what are most post ganglionic sympathetic receptors? what hormone?
125 of 266
are pre or post ganglionic neurons usually myelinated?
usually pre ganglionic
126 of 266
how do autonomic efferents work?
connect with other cells in a ganglion-this cell innervates muscles/glands
127 of 266
what do somatic efferent axons go straight to?
128 of 266
sympathetic ganglia are close to what?
close to spinal cord
129 of 266
what does the diencephalon form?
thalamus, hypothalamus, subthalamus, pineal gland
130 of 266
what are interneurons important in?
131 of 266
external disturbance of flow of CSF causes what?
hydroencephaly,blockages, swelling of vesicles blood supply compromised
132 of 266
way to remember how a transverse section is cut?
you can pull it up and down the body like trousers
133 of 266
name parts of the mesencephalon?
substania nigra, reticular formation, nucleus ruber, tectum,cerebral pefuncles
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what are the substantia nigra and nucleus ruber involved in?
the regulation of movement
135 of 266
what is the 3 parts to the reticular activating system
Circadian rhythm, alertness and emotions
136 of 266
what does the diencephalon contain?
thalamus, hypothalamus,pineal gland
137 of 266
what part of the brain is the diencephalon in?
forebrain (links midbrain and cerebrum)
138 of 266
what special sense does the thalamus NOT process?
139 of 266
what is the thalamus roles?
motor role, arousal + emotion, higher functions, processing and relay centre
140 of 266
what is it called when you see sounds?
141 of 266
eating, drinking, sexual behaviour, stress
142 of 266
what are sulci?
143 of 266
what are the 6 main lobes?
frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, central (insula(+), limbic
144 of 266
where is wernickes area?
posterior temporal lobe
145 of 266
defect in wernickes area causses what?
146 of 266
what makes up the corpus striatum?
caudate + putamen
147 of 266
what do pyrimidal cells contain many of?
148 of 266
features of olfactory cells?
they are bipolar with cilia, have to be replaced throughout life, no axons as have dendrodendricitic synapses
149 of 266
the glia limitan is formed by astrocytes between what?
between pia mater and cerebral cortex
150 of 266
what is the glia limitans?
a thin layer of astrocyte foot processes associated with the parachymal basal lamina surrounding SC and brain
151 of 266
what does the metencephalon form?
pons and cerebellum
152 of 266
what do bergmann cells do? where are they found?
adult brain stem cells, span in cerebellum, span from pia to purkinje cell
153 of 266
astrocytes act like syncytium which allow spatial buffering, whats a syncytium?
fused (but not fused) multinucleate
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what mutants do you get with PLP?
jimpy & rumpshaker
155 of 266
what are the enzymes in the CNS?
carbonic anhydrase, cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase,Ig (MOG + MAG) lipid metabolism, proteases
156 of 266
what are the proteins in the PNS?
P0, MBP and PMP-22
157 of 266
what does a mutation in the P0 protein cause?
charcot marie tooth syndrome 1b
158 of 266
what does chemical activity provide?
chemical neurotransmitters allow flexibility eg inhibition
159 of 266
what is the difference in how infomation is coded by action potentials and graded potentials?
action potentials- frequency graded potentials- size
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what are the properties of graded potentials?
variable in size, not pass over long distances, can go both ways
161 of 266
what do astrocytes enwrap?
oricesses, synapses and blood vessels
162 of 266
what is an example of a bipolar neuron?
bipolar retinal cells
163 of 266
what are type 1 golgi?
164 of 266
what is an example of a unipolar neuron?
dorsal root ganglion
165 of 266
where are fibrous astrocytes found?
166 of 266
are protoplasmic or fibrous astrocytes shorter?
protoplasmic usually shorter stouter processes
167 of 266
what are examples of multipolar axons?
motor neurons, cerebellar granule cells, pyramidal cells and purkinje cells
168 of 266
what dendritic field do motor neurons have?
a symmetrical dendritic field
169 of 266
what happens when astrocytes uptake transmitters?
glutamate into astrocytes, Y amino butryic acid
170 of 266
3 types of ependyma?
171 of 266
which is not a secondary brain vesicle?
172 of 266
name the association fibres?
arcuate fibres,longlitudinal fasciculli
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what does the telecephalon form?
cerebral hemispheres containing cortex, basal ganglia, hippocampus, corpus striatum,
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the proscephalon splits into what?
DT- dicephalon and telecephalon
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what are the 5 secondary vesicles?
dicepehlon, telecephalon, myetecepholon, mescenphalon and metencephalon
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what does the myencephalon form?
177 of 266
what does the deiencephalon form?
thalamus,hypothalamus, pineal gland, subthalamus, optic nerve
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name a region where tonocytes are found?
in the hippocampus
179 of 266
what dendritic field do purkinje cells have?
planar dendritic field
180 of 266
what are temporal summations?
potentials add up over time
181 of 266
what are spatial summation?
multiple stimulus gives larger EPSP
182 of 266
what do lidocaine and tetrodoxin target?
183 of 266
what can reduce aps in graded potentials?
chloride flow, inhibitory post synaptic potentials
184 of 266
when do IPSP have no effect?
185 of 266
features of metabotropic?
slower more complex, signal amplification, multiple channels affected, modulators
186 of 266
what makes a dense line on myelin?
linked INternal proteins (MAJOR period)
187 of 266
what is the periocidity of the CNS?
188 of 266
how much of myelin is made up of water?
189 of 266
a defect in what causes jimpy mouse and rumpshaker?
190 of 266
what is injecting MBP and inducing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis a model for?
191 of 266
what are the other CNS Myelin protein that are Ig like moleucles?
MOG, MAG and oligo-axon communication
192 of 266
what areas are vunerable to MS?
periventricular white matter, holey bits
193 of 266
what does guillan barre syndrome happen as a result of? example?
after viral/bac infection eg capylobacter jejuni
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what does guillan barre syndrome cause?
acute inflammatory response, primary demyelination
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name commisural fibres?
internal capsule, interior commisure, corpus callosum
196 of 266
what happens at 7 months of developments?
197 of 266
when myeln starts to form the composition changes and theres an increase in what?
galactolipids and protein components
198 of 266
fetal alcohol syndrome consequences?
microcephaly, motor+intellectual impairment, disturbed migration, irritability, loss of cells and fibres, facial abnormaities
199 of 266
Consequences of ecstasy?
long term effects on hippocampus
200 of 266
what is the speed of conduction at 6-12m
201 of 266
how many weeks does the DRG connect to the spinal cord (non noxious)?
202 of 266
how many weeks is there connections from the thalamus to cortex and cortical responses shown by imaging?
203 of 266
when do the retinal inputs arrive?
204 of 266
when does rooting (****** seeking) go?
205 of 266
what are vesicles?
fluid filled swellings at the rostral end of the tube?
206 of 266
name dura layers inside out
dueral mater (menigeal layer), dura sinus, dura mater (endosteal layer)
207 of 266
brainstem important why?
housekeeping nuclei, decussation, ascending and decensding tract
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what is the pyramidal tract (brainstem) made up of?
mostly motor fibres
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what are the major features of the medulla oblongata?
fibre tracts, nuceli for CVS+resp, olives to link to cerebellum, nerve roots
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what is the difference between olives and peduncles as both make connections to the cerebellum?
cerebellum peduncles- pons, olives- medulla oblongata
211 of 266
roles of the cerebellum?
muscle tone, co-ordination motor error checking and learning
212 of 266
mesencephalon made up of what?
tectum (colliculi) substantia nigra, nucleus ruber
213 of 266
what part of the brain has cerebral peduncles?
214 of 266
reticular activating system 3 roles?
215 of 266
reticular formation involves?
RAS, CVS, and brainstem neuron clusters
216 of 266
thalamus, hypothalamus, pineal
217 of 266
roles of thalamus not including sensory processing?
motor role, arousal, emotional and higher functions
218 of 266
what is the PNS made up of?
nerves AND cell bodies to/from brain+SC
219 of 266
some PNS cells are found somewhere else, where?
PNS cells lie in the CNS eg neurons innervating muscle (motorneurons)
220 of 266
how many pairs of peripheral nerves enter exit the brain+SC?
221 of 266
tetraethylammonium (TEA) poison blocks which channels?
222 of 266
para and sympathetic use what neurotransmitter for pre ganglionic?
223 of 266
what neurotransmitter for post ganglionic symapthetic?
224 of 266
what is the speed of small unmyelinated axons (0.2-1.5um?
225 of 266
what pump uses up 70% of the energy in the brain?
K/N ATPase pump
226 of 266
why so many unmyelinated small axons?
because the space constant (high m resistance is reduced by high internal resistance) metabolic +volume constraints
227 of 266
why does diameter influence the conduction velocity?
resistance is inversely proprotional to cross sectional area of the axon
228 of 266
what does myelination do to the space constant?
229 of 266
what is the space constant?
the distance from site of depolarization where it has fallen to 37%
230 of 266
whats the max speed of squid axons?
231 of 266
2 types of electrical signals?
1) action potentials 2) graded potentials
232 of 266
what do graded potentials work by?
excitatory post synaptic potentials
233 of 266
examples of electrical synapse places?
cardiac and smooth muscle, retinal neuronal
234 of 266
selectivity of membrane provided by what?
235 of 266
unequal charge distribution provided by what?
236 of 266
what is the rising phase?
inside -ve, there is a large driving force of Na rushes into cell depolarising it
237 of 266
what is the overshoot?
where equilibrium is above 0mv, its where the permeability of the membrane favours sodium, close to sodium equilibrium potential
238 of 266
what is the absolute refractory period?
no aps generated for period of time as Na channels inactivated, membrane needs to be -ve again to deactivate
239 of 266
what is he undershoot?
open voltage gated K channels add to the resting potential permeability, toward EK
240 of 266
what the relative refractory period?
stronger stimulus needed to generate an ap, threshold is higher
241 of 266
what happens in the falling phase?
voltage gated K channels open and k ions rush out, sodium channels inacitvate
242 of 266
what is the ionic driving force proportional to?
membrane potential - equilibrium potential
243 of 266
what causes channels to open?
a stimulus eg activation of a stretch or thermal receptor or an excitatory chemical neurotransmitter
244 of 266
what explains why an action potential is so quick?
rapid inactivation of vg sodium channels in1 msec
245 of 266
whats another name for voltage gated potassium channels?
delayed rectifying channels
246 of 266
what kind of junction is the chemical junction?
247 of 266
how big is the synaptic cleft/gap?
248 of 266
what kind of infomation processing do syanpses allow?
flexible, elaborate, subtle and complex
249 of 266
how do synapses change?
can shrink, grow, move position, change shape
250 of 266
what do larger synapses usually have more of?
251 of 266
4 Types of synapses?
axodendritic, axosomatic, axoaxonic, dedndrodendritic
252 of 266
3 types of transmittrs?
acetylcholine, amino acids, biogenic amines
253 of 266
what amino acid transmitters are there?
aspartic acid, GABA, glycine and glutamic acid
254 of 266
steps of transmission in order?
1) synthesis 2) storage 3) relase 4) postsynaptic effects 5) inactivation
255 of 266
where are neuropeptides synthesised? what are they stored in?
syn in soma, stored in secretory granules
256 of 266
what neurotransmiters are synthesised and packed at the synaptic terminal?
Acetylcholine, amines and amini acids
257 of 266
where does calcium move in synaptic transmission?
inside the axon
258 of 266
what is the concentration of calcium outside in synaptic transmission/
259 of 266
how much neurotransmitter does synaptic vesicles contain?
260 of 266
how is a qunata established?
the vesicles at a synapse release nearly the same amount of neurotransmitter each time
261 of 266
2 main types of receptors in synaptic transmission?
1) ligand-gated ion channel (ionotropic) 2) G-protein coupled receptor (metabotropic)
262 of 266
who figured out that Ach was released from motor nerves using dogs, cats and frogs?
263 of 266
What did Loewi do?
chemical neurotransmission found Vagustoff in dogs
264 of 266
who defined the synapse using CAD (cats apes dogs?)
Sherrington. [also looked at motor control, relefexes+ localisation]
265 of 266
who formulated receptor, named the ANS theory using CD and rabbits?
266 of 266
Other cards in this set
what disease does the substantia nigra have a role in?
what role does the reticular activating system have?
what does the thalamus do?
what does the pineal gland do?