Introduction to Neuroscience

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  • Created by: jessica
  • Created on: 14-12-12 11:09
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  • Introduction to Neuroscience
    • Axons
      • carry output of neurons
      • collaterals are axon branches
      • end in terminal bouton
        • where neurotransmitters are stored in vesicles
      • post mitotic so cant go through cell division
    • Synapses and Neurotransmitters
      • electrical impulses converted to chemical across synaptic cleft
      • main neurotransmitters are GABA, glutamate, serine, histadine
        • amino acids, amides and peptides form neurotransmitters
      • Gray's type 1 synapse is asymetrical and excitatory
        • Gray's type 2 synapse is symmetrical and inhibitory
    • Somatosensory system
      • Five basic tastes-saltiness, sourness, sweetness, bitterness,umami
      • Untitled
    • Types of neuron
      • Sensory neuron
      • Projection neuron-long axon connecting with sense organs/muscles
      • Motor neuron-axons branch forming many terminals
      • interneurons-short axons that only connect with other neurons
      • unpolar neuron, bipolar neuron or multipolar neuron
    • Neurons
      • sense changes in environment and communicates to other neurons, commanding responses
      • Axons
        • carry output of neurons
        • collaterals are axon branches
        • end in terminal bouton
          • where neurotransmitters are stored in vesicles
        • post mitotic so cant go through cell division
      • Neuronal membrane 5nm thick with ion pump proteins and channel proteins
    • Action potentials
      • brief reversal of the resting potential
        • lasts about 2msec
      • Equilibrium potentials calculated using Nernst equation
        • Eion=2.303RT/zF log conc.ion0/conc,ion1
      • Goldman equation calculates the resting membrane potential
        • 61.54mVlogPk(K+) +PNa(Na+)/Pk(K+)1 + PNa(NA+)1=Vm
      • caused by depolarization of membrane beyond threshold level
      • follows ohm's law I=gV
    • Nervous system
      • PNS-Peripheral Nervous System made of nerves, nerve cells outside of brain and spinal cord
      • CNS-central nervous system made of cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem and spinal cord
      • Ventral roots-motor fibres only
      • Dorsal roots-sensory fibres only
    • Brain basics
      • gyri and sulci/fissures parcel the cerebrum into lobes
        • Sylvian fissure divides frontal and temporal lobe
        • central sulcus divides frontal lobe from parietal lobe with the occipital lobe at the back of the brain
      • White and grey matter
      • Forebrain, Midbrain and Hindbrain
        • Midbrain-Vision
          • tectum, superior colliculi, inferior colliculi, dopamine nuclei, substantia nigra
        • Hindbrain-vibration (hearing)
        • Forebrain-Chemical senses
          • thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus, pineal organ
      • Anterior/Rostral point forwards
        • Posterior/Caudal points backwards
          • Dorsal points upwards
          • Ventral points downwards
    • Glia
      • insulating/ supporting/ nourishing cell for neurons
      • Astrocyte, microglia, radial glia and oligodendroglia are the types of glia present
    • G protein coupled effector systems
      • secondary messenger system
    • Dendrites
      • Neurons
        • sense changes in environment and communicates to other neurons, commanding responses
        • Neuronal membrane 5nm thick with ion pump proteins and channel proteins
      • receive incoming signals/ input
      • Some have spines
      • dendritic tree
    • Eye
      • visual input
      • rods and cones are the sensory receptio

Comments

Faith Thompson


Detailed!!!

jessica

Practically all of my notes transferred into a mind map! took hours!

MetropolisBoy

impressive! Thanks alot for this!  :D

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