Neurobiology and communication

What is the role of the nervous system?
detects info, analyses sensory info and makes decisions about responses
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What is the nervous syste composed of?
Brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves
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State the structures that make up the CNS
Brain and Spinal cord
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what is the PNS composed of?
cranial and spinal nerves
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State the role of the somatic nervous system
controls the bodys skeletal muscles and controls voluntary actions
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What is the role of the autonomic nervous system?
regulates internal structures and organs and controls involuntary actions. It works automatically without conscious control.
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What part of the brain regulates the autonomic nervous system?
the medulla
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State the role of the sympathetic nervous system
the sympathetic nervous system prepares the body for action and in doing so it speeds up heart rate, decreases blood flow to digestive organs and increases blood to the muscles
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State the role of the parasympathetic nervous system
The parasympathic nervous system calms the body down and returns it to normal. It slows down heart rate, increases blood flow to the digestive organs and decreases blood flow to the muscles
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What does adrenaline help to sustain?
the arousal effects until the emergency is dealt with
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Describe the role of the medulla, cerebrum and cerebellum
Medulla controls heart rate and breathig rate, cerebrum controls higher thinking such as memory and speech and the cerebellum controls balance and coordination
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What are the three interconnecting parts of the brain called?
the limbic system, the central core and the cerebral cortex
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What does the central core contain?
the medulla and the cerebellum
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What is the role of the limbic system?
processes information for memories and influences emotional and motivational states
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What is the role of the hypothalamus?
influences hormonal secretions and regulates the homeostatic mechanisms
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What are the two halves in the cerebral cortex known as and what do they do?
cerebral hemispheres where the left side controls the right side and the right controls the left
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What fibre connects the two hemispheres together?
corpus callosum
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What are the 3 discrete functional areas of the cerebrum?
Sensory Area- receives information as a sensory impulse, Motor Area- sends motor impulses to the effectors and the Association Area- analayses the information and makes decisions
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What are the distinct association areas in the cerebrum?
language, personality, imagination and intelligence
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What side of the brain is the speech motor area on?
the left side
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What is percption?
the process where the brain analyses and makes sense of incoming sensory information
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What are the 3 areas of perception?
Segration of objects- figure and ground, perception of distance- each eye looks at a slightly different position (bincoluar disparity) and recognition- shape is more important than detail
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What is memory?
memory is the brains ability to store, retain and retreive information
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What are the three stages to memory?
Sensory memory, short term memory and long term memory
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What is sensory memory?
sensory memory is where information is transferred to the STM and if it isnt transferred to the LTM then the items will be displaced
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State the features of the short term memory?
the STM has a limited capacity and can only retain 7 items for 30 seconds and after that the memory is displaced.
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State two ways in which information can be encoded
Rehearsal and chunking
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What is the serial position effect?
items are remembered at the start and the end of a sequence
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How can information be passed from the STM to the LTM?
Rehearsal- repeating the info, Organisation- grouping items and Elaboration- expanding on the meaning
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What is the LTM?
the LTM has an unlimited capacity and information can be encoded either by reptition or linking it with previous memories
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Define the term encoding
encoding is where information is converted into a form that the brain can understand
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What are contextual cues?
contextual cues relate to the conditions present when the information was first encoded
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Where is episodic, semantic, emotional, spacial and procedural memories found?
Episodic and semantic in the cortex, emotional in the cortex and limbic system, spatial memory is in the limbic system only and procedural in motor cortex
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What is a neurone?
A neurone is a nerve cell that transmits nerve impulses in the nervous system
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What are the three types of neurones?
sensory, inter and motor neurones
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What are the 3 types of a neuron and describe their function
Dendrites- receives nerve impulses, Cell body- control centre and Axon- carries impulses away from the cell body
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What is the role of the myelin sheath and how is it produced?
Glial cells produce the myelin sheath, which insulates the axon and increases the speed of impulse conduction
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What is a synapse?
a synapse is a gap between neurones
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What is a neurotransmitter?
a neurotransmitter relays impulses across the synaptic cleft
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What are the 3 types of neurotransmitters?
Acetylcholine, noradrenaline and dopamine
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Describe the transmission of an impulse at a synapse
1. the nerve impulse stimulates the vesicles in the axon bulb where they fuse with the membrane and secrete the neurtransmiter, 2. neurotransmitters diffuse across the synapse, 3. neurotransmitters combine with the recpetors 4. nerve impulse passes
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Why can a nerve impulse only be transmitted in one direction?
because the vesicles that contain the neurotransmiter are only found on one side of the synapse
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Describe how noradrenaline and acetylcholine are removed from a synapse
Noradrenaline is reabsorbed by the presynaptic membrane and acetylcholine is broken down by degrading enzymes
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Why is their removal important?
to ensure that the nerve impulses are not continuously transmitted
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What are the two types of nerve signals?
excitatory- increases transmission and inhibitory reduces transmission
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State the three types of neural pathways and desribe them
Converging-nerve impulses come together and meet at a point, Diverging- one original point to several destinations and reverberating- neurones further down the pathway synapse with neurones further up the pathway
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What is the plasticity of response?
the plasticity of response occurs when new neural pathways bypass areas of brain damage and suppress reflexes
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What are endorphins?
endorphins are chemicals that function like neurotransmitters that give euphoric feelings and reduce the intensity of pain
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When does endorphin production increase?
due to stress and severe injury
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What affect does dopamine have on the brain?
dopamine activates the reward pathway and induces feelings of pleasure and reinforced particular behaviours
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State the effect of agonist and antagonist drugs
agonist drugs bind to and stimulate receptors mimicking the neurotransmitter and antagonist drugs block the action of neurotransmitters
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How do recreational drugs affect the reward circuit of the brain?
imitate the action of neurotransmitters and block receptors
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What is drug sensitisation and desensitisation?
sensitisation is an increase in the number and sensitivity of receptors due to exposure of antagonist drugs leads addict and desensitisation- decrease in the number and sensitivity of receptors due to exposure to agonist drugs leads to drug tolerance
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What is infant attatchement?
infant attachment is the emotional tie that exists between the baby and its carer
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Why is infant attachment important?
infant attachment is important in laying the foundation of stable relationships
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what is contact comfort?
contact comfort is body contact from the babys carer
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What is secure attachment?
secure attachment is where responsive mothers create happily attached and secure infants
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What is insecure attachment?
insecure attachment is where children have had negative or unpredictable experiences and they do not trust easily
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What is social competance?
social competance is successful interaction with others. Authoritative control results in greater social competance than permissive control
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Why is non-verbal communication important?
it is important in the formation of relationships between the parent and the child. It is important in parent-infant bonding
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What is the importance of verbal communication?
verbal communication is important in accelorating learning and developing intellect
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define the terms reinforcement, shaing and extinction
reinforcement- makes an organism repeat a particular behaviour, shaping- reinforces stages that are close to the desired behaviour and extinction is the eventual disappearance of a behaviour pattern
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What is generalisation?
Generalisation is when an individual responds in the same way to many different but related stimuli
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What is discrimination?
it is when a person responds differently to different but related stimuli
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What is social facilitation?
social facilitation is the increase in performance in a competitve situation
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What is deindividuation?
loss of personal identity in a group situation
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What is internalisation?
change in beliefs due to persuasion
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What is identification?
change in beliefs and behaviour to be like someone we admire
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is the nervous syste composed of?


Brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves

Card 3


State the structures that make up the CNS


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


what is the PNS composed of?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


State the role of the somatic nervous system


Preview of the front of card 5
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