natural hazards

DESTRUCTIVE BOUNDARY

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CRUST
the outer layer of the earth
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MANTLE
the middle layer of the earth - in between the crust and the core
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CORE
the centre of the earth
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PLATE BOUNDARY
Place where 2 plates meet. This is where most volcanoes and earthquakes occur (in narrow belts)
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CONSTRUCTIVE BOUNDARY
2 plates PULL APART and BUILD NEW LAND.Sometimes they may stick, pressure can then build up. Once released, it may trigger an earthquake. E.g SAN ANDREAS FAULT, USA. NO VOLCANOES, just QUAKES
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CONSERVATIVE BOUNDARY
2 plates move SIDE BY SIDE.Magma comes up from the mantle and fills the gap. New islands can be formed in this way (e.g. ICELAND along the MID-ATLANTIC RIDGE)
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DESTRUCTIVE BOUNDARY
OCEANIC MEETS CONTINENTAL and IS DESTROYED as it is FORCED UNDERNEATH (subduction). Friction occurs, which can lead to heat melting the rocks - creating volcanoes. Pressure can build up too, causing earthquakes also. E.g. Asian Tsunami, 2004
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COLLISION BOUNDARY
2 platesCOLLIDE and PUSH UPWARDS, forming mountains. E.g Himalayas. NO VOLCANOES, just QUAKES
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COLLISION BOUNDARY
2 platesCOLLIDE and PUSH UPWARDS, forming mountains. E.g Himalayas. NO VOLCANOES, just QUAKES
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ERUPTION
When a volcano erupts, there may be...lava flows, volcanic bombs, ash columns, lahars (mudflows) and pyroclastic flows (hot ash cloud)
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EARTHQUAKES
build up of pressure in the earth's crust is released - the place where it starts within the crust is the FOCUS, on the earth's surface, it is called the EPICENTRE. SEISMIC WAVES travel through the crust.
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PRIMARY HAZARDS
Things which happen in the first few moments, such as the ground shaking during a quake, or a lava flow during an eruption
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SECONDARY HAZARDS
Things which may happen as a direct result of the hazard, e.g:
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RICHTER SCALE
measures the MAGNITUDE (strength) of a quake. A medium quake would measure about 5, whilst a strong would measure 6. Strongest ever was 9.5.
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HURRICANES/CYCLONES/TROPICAL STORMS
form over tropical oceans (surface temps around 26 degrees or higher). Lots of evaporation occurs from the warm water and cools, forming clouds. The hurricane may gain more energy and heat towards land, where they then usually fizzle out. They can be
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LEDCS
LEDCs may suffer more than MEDCs as:
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

the middle layer of the earth - in between the crust and the core

Back

MANTLE

Card 3

Front

the centre of the earth

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Place where 2 plates meet. This is where most volcanoes and earthquakes occur (in narrow belts)

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

2 plates PULL APART and BUILD NEW LAND.Sometimes they may stick, pressure can then build up. Once released, it may trigger an earthquake. E.g SAN ANDREAS FAULT, USA. NO VOLCANOES, just QUAKES

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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