Natural and artificial selection

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  • Created by: Steff06
  • Created on: 17-06-16 15:12
Describe natural selection
The organisms best adapted to their environments are more likely to survive to reproduce and pass on the favourable alleles to their offspring.
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What happens in artificial selection?
Humans select the organisms with useful characteristics. Allow the useful characteristics to breed and prevent ones without the characteristics from breeding.
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How have humans artificially selected improved breeds of cows with higher milk production?
By repeatedly selecting cows with high milk yields and allowing them to breed over many generations.
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What is the procedure for this?
Cow's milk yield is measured and recorded. Progeny of bulls tested to see which have produced daughters with high milk yields. Semen from 1 bull collected and used to artificially inseminate many cows. Some given hormones to produce many eggs.
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What happens to these eggs?
Eggs are fertilised in vitro and embryos implanted into surrogate mothers. Embryos could also be cloned and divided into many more identical embryos.
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What are most wild species of wheat?
Most are diploid with 14 chromosomes.
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What are grasses like other domesticated plants able to go through?
Undergo polyploidy as their nuclei contain more than 1 diploid set of chromosomes.
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Describe modern bread wheat
Modern bread wheat is hexaploid (6n) having 42 chromosomes in the nucleus of each cell.
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What are the 3 distinct genomes that modern wheat has?
AUAUBBDD
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Where has the genome AUAU come from?
Come from a wild wheat species such as T.urartu
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Where has the genome BB come from?
From wild emmer wheat T. turgidum
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Where has the genome DD come from?
From a wild goat grass such as Ae. tauschii or Ae. squarrosa.
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What characteristics do they focus on instilling in bread wheat?
Resistance to fungal infections, high protein content, increased yield, straw stiffness.
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Card 2

Front

What happens in artificial selection?

Back

Humans select the organisms with useful characteristics. Allow the useful characteristics to breed and prevent ones without the characteristics from breeding.

Card 3

Front

How have humans artificially selected improved breeds of cows with higher milk production?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the procedure for this?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What happens to these eggs?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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