Native Americans-Key People

  • Created by: Soph
  • Created on: 30-05-13 21:06
Stokely Carmichael
1941, organiser for SNCC between 1964-66, became chair of the organisation.. 1967 co wrote black power, outlining his view for blacks in the USA. Bit of an extremist. Joined the black panthers in 1967.
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Richard Nixon
Republican, said he opposed new initiatives on civil rights, affirmative action and bussing were developed. Occupied mainly with foreign affairs.
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Jesse Jackson
SCLC official, studied theology in Chicago in 1966, his knowledge of conditions for blacks in the north was used by King. Founded PUSH ( people united to serve humanity) successful in getting thousands of jobs for AAs.
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George Bush;
running mate to Ronald Reagan. On civil rights issues he came to the presidency with a liberal record, voting for the Fair Housing Act of 1968. Less keen on what he saw as artificial civil rights such as bussing affirmative action. Vetoe
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Ronald Reagan
opposed voting rights act-‘humiliating’ to the south tended to oppose welfare and employment programmes that particularly benefitted AA
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Malcolm X
converted to Islam which changed his life, in 1950s he was a minister in a number of Nation of Islam temples and in 1962 became a national spokesman
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Lyndon B Johnson
president 1963-69, one of the few southern senates to give general support to civil rights in the 1950’s
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Robert Kennedy
implemented favourable Supreme Court decisions on civil rights. Senator for New York from 1964, played a leading role in getting civil rights legislation passed. Assassinated before he could run for presidency.
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SCLC (southern Christian leadership conference);
formed in 1957 in Atlanta with king as president. Widened the field of civil rights activity. The SCLC did not take individual members but reacted to events organising campaigns as seemed appropriate.
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Dwight D Eisenhower
Republican President, though passive rather than active, did not have a strong party. Did not favour aggressive action except as a last resort. His failure to take presidential initiative after the brown case is seen as a weaker point.
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Rosa Parks
member of the NAACP who was highly regarded. Led Montgomery bus Boycott, but had to move after harassment from whites. Later set up Rosa and Raymond Parks institute for self development, giving career training to black youths. Awarded presidential me
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Martin Luther King;
Studied in Boston to study for a PhD after suffering abuse. Was a Baptist minister in Montgomery 1954-60 after which he returned and became a full time leader of the civil rights movement, he was assassinated in 1968.
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Booker T Washington
born into slavery in Virginia and of mixed race parentage. Was part of the first generation of children who benefited from the new educational opportunities available after emancipation in 1865. Receive the opportunity at Hampton to dedicate his li
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Du Bois
Son of free black parents, he acquired a PhD from Harvard University , the first AA to do so in 1895. A prolific writer on the black condition and an early sociologist, he helped to found the Niagara Movement in 1905 and National Association
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T Thomas Fortune (1856-1928)
Born into slavery, Florida, was the editor of New York Age, protesting against the treatment of AAs. He formed the Afro-American League at the start of 1890 to defend black civil rights. Collapsed in 1893 through lack of
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Ida B Wells (1862-1931)
Born of slave parents. Campaign against discrimination began in 1884 when she refused to give up her seat on a train to as white man. She was forcibly removed but subsequently sued the railroad company. Her personal courage i
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Marcus Garvey
Born in Jamaica, he originally worked as a printer leading a strike in 1908/9. He arrived in the US in March 1916 and decided to stay, founding the first American branch of his organisation UNIA in 1917, becoming quickly an important f
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Thomas Woodrow Wilson
Elected president in 1912, held racist views prevalent in the south at the time. He did not appoint AA’s or associate with their leaders. He appointed segregation southerners to his administration, who proceeded to segregate e
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Andrew Johnson
Elected in 1856 where he opposed anti slavery legislation.
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Thaddeus Stevens
Determined supporter of radical reconstruction. Took a hard line against the southern states regarding them as conquered provinces
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Thurgood Marshall;
Black lawyer who took cases regarding segregation to the Supreme court on behalf of the NAACP and won nearly all of them (Brown vs. Board of education, Smith vs. Allright)
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F and E Roosevelt
Sympathetic to the plight of AA, he did little directly to help them, partly because he was dependent on southern Democrats for passing legislation. Presidency: 1932-44. Publicly supported the NAACP’s Anti-
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Adam Powell
First elected black member of the House of Representatives. He regularly challenged segregation arrangements in the city and organised a don’t buy where you can’t work campaign, tended to be a lone fighter rather than leader of a large m
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Blanche Bruce
Born into slavery, became a landowner and local politician in 1869 and obtaining the support of a number of leading white Republicans in the state government. Served on a number of important government committees and in 1888 he gained
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Frederick Douglass
Was the leading black opponent of slavery, An escaped slave, he became active in the Anti-Slavery Society and set up his own anti slavery newspaper. After emancipation he refused the offer of running the Freedman’s Bureau, disappro
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Grover Cleveland
Elected president, he affirmed the rights of all Americans of whatever colour but as a Democrat he favoured letting the southern states pursue what policies they wished towards race relations and civil rights.
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Theodore Roosevelt
Became president 1901, he supported progressive movement but did not really address the question of black civil rights. Criticised by white supremacist for holding officials meeting with Booker T Washington of whose work he clear
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Herbert Hoover
It was his attempt to point a racist supreme court judge that opposed the NAACP. He had resorted to the race card to win over Democrats to his Republican Party, a move as unedifying as it was unsuccessful.
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Oliver Howard 1830-1909
Played a distinguished military role in the Civil War, much of it after losing an arm. He was made head of Freedman’s Bureau in May 1865 and was noted for his lack of corruption and genuine interest in the welfare of the emancipated slaves. One of h
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Self Help Groups
These self help groups were comprised of freedmen who joined together their meagre earnings to buy land and disused buildings in order to provide schools and to employ teachers who came mainly from the north. This compensated for t
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National Association for the Advancement of Colored People,the NAACP won the Morgan v Virginia case where the Supreme Court banned states from having segregated facilities on busses and trains that crossed state borders.
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Card 2


Richard Nixon


Republican, said he opposed new initiatives on civil rights, affirmative action and bussing were developed. Occupied mainly with foreign affairs.

Card 3


Jesse Jackson


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Card 4


George Bush;


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Card 5


Ronald Reagan


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