Moral Argument

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What did Kant believe we were able to know God through, if considering morality?
Practical reason
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What's the first step of Kant's moral argument? HINT: Summum bonum
Person w/ right moral intentions seeks to bring about Highest Good (summum bonum)
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What's the second step of Kant's moral argument? HINT: "Ought implies can"
Req. by sense of duty (categorical imp.) to bring about Highest Good → must be attainable
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What's the third step of Kant's moral argument? HINT: virtue, happiness
Humans can achieve virtue in lifetime but it’s beyond us to ensure reward of happiness. (humans ≠ omnipotent) This = attainable in afterlife.
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What's the fourth step of Kant's moral argument? HINT: God
Therefore, must be God w/ power to ensure coincidence of virtue + happiness
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Why does Pascal think a person should believe in God?
B/c it → reward in afterlife
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What does Pascal believe happens to people who live in indulgence?
Judgement + punishment
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Give one criticism of Pascal.
Argument only works on 1 level; person can live indulgently w/o punishment, or live good life w/ no afterlife reward due to non-existence of God.
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What did Cardinal Newman believe was evidence for God's existence?
Conscience
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Explain Robert Adams' moral argument.
Right/wrong = determined by commands of omnibenevolent God. No God/no omnibenevolent God → no morality, therefore God exists.
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What question does Brian Davies ask of morality?
Why does it have to come from ✞ God - pantheon of angels?
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What did Russell believe about maturity?
Requires riddance of religion
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What did Russell believe about free will and rewards for virtuous behaviour?
They were incompatible.
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What did Joseph Fletcher believe about morality?
More complex than obeying objective duty
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What did Fletcher believe about how people respond to moral situations?
They do so in the most loving way
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How did J.L Mackie criticise the moral argument?
Evidence of biological, sociological, psychological explanation for conscience makes moral argument indefensible
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What did Sigmund Freud believe about the sense of duty, said by theists to come from God?
Product of childhood conditioning
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Name three things that Freud believed were factors in morality.
Upbringing, friends, society
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Name the three parts Freud believed made up the mind.
Id, ego and superego
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Describe the Id.
Unconscious self, primitive mind. Contains all basic needs/feelings.
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Describe the Ego.
Conscious self, functions w/ rational part of mind, controls Id.
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Describe the Super-Ego.
Moral part of mind.
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What did Freud believe conscience was?
Internalised childhood guilt.
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What quote shows God as the source of morality?
“He has also set eternity in the human heart…” – Ecclesiastes 3:11
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What did Hick believe about Kant's moral argument?
Just b/c summum bonum = logically possible, it doesn't follow that it exists
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Where does Bertrand Russell believe our morality comes from?
A desire to better society and the people w/i it
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What quote shows Karl Marx's view that morality is a social construct?
"Religion is the opium of the people."
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What's the first step of Kant's moral argument? HINT: Summum bonum

Back

Person w/ right moral intentions seeks to bring about Highest Good (summum bonum)

Card 3

Front

What's the second step of Kant's moral argument? HINT: "Ought implies can"

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What's the third step of Kant's moral argument? HINT: virtue, happiness

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What's the fourth step of Kant's moral argument? HINT: God

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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