Module 2 Excretion

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Excretion
The removal of metabolic waste from the body
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Metabolic waste
Consists of waste substances that may be toxic or are produced in excess by the reactions inside cells
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Deamination
The removal of the amine group from an amino acid to produce ammonia
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Bilirubin
One of the waste products of haemoglobin
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What is the primary function of Kupffer cells?
Breaking down and recycling old red blood cells
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Urea
An excretory product formed from the breakdown of excess amino acids
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Ornithine cycle
The process in which ammonia is converted to urea. It occurs partly in the cystol and partly in mitochondria, as ATP is used.
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Detoxification
The conversion of toxic molecules to less toxic or non-toxic molecules
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Nephron
The functional unit of the kidney. It is a microscopic tubule that recieves fluid from the blood capillaries in the cortex and converts this to urine, which drains into the ureter
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Glomerulus
A fine network of capillaries that increases the local blood pressure to squeeze fluid out of the blood. It is surrounded by a cup or funnel-shaped capsule which collects the fluid and leads into the nephron
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What happens in selective reabsorption?
Useful substances are reabsorbed from the nephron into the bloodstream while other excretory substances remain in the nephron
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Podocytes
Specialised cells that make up the lining of the Bowmans capsule
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Microvilli
Microscopic folds of the cell surface membrane to increase the surface are of the cell
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Facilitated diffusion
Diffusion that is enhanced by the action of proteins in the cell membrane
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Osmoregulation
The conrol and regulation of the water potential of the blood and body fluids. In humans the kidney controls the water potential of the blood
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Distal convoluted tubule
The coiled portion of the nephron between the loop of Henle and collecting duct
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Antiduretic hormone (ADH)
Released from the pituatory gland and acts on the collecting ducts in the kidneys to increase their reabsorption of water
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Neurosecretory cells
Specialised cells that act like nerve cells but release a hormone into the blood. ADH is manufactured in the cell body and passes down the axon to be stored in the terminal bulb
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Posterior pituitary gland
The hind part of the pituatory gland, which releases ADH
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What is dialysis?
The use of a partially permeable membrane to filter the blood
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What is the dialysis membrane?
A partially permeable membrane that separates the dialysis fluid from the patients blood in a dialysis machine
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What happens in haemodialysis?
Blood is taken from a vein and passed through a dialysis machine so that exchange can occur across a partially permeable membrane
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What happens in peritoneal dialysis?
Dialysis fluid is pumped into the body cavity so that exchange can occur across the peritoneal membrane
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Human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG)
A hormone released by human embryos; its presence in the mother urine confirms pregnancy
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Anabolic steriods
Drugs that mimic the action of steriod hormones that increase muscle growth
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Card 2

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Metabolic waste

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Consists of waste substances that may be toxic or are produced in excess by the reactions inside cells

Card 3

Front

Deamination

Back

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Card 4

Front

Bilirubin

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the primary function of Kupffer cells?

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