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Module 2: Excretion

(a) Define the term excretion

The removal of metabolic wastes from the body

(b) Explain the importance of removing metabolic wastes,

Carbon dioxide Can affect the affinity of haemoglobin to oxygen
Takes up space in the haemoglobin
Can cause respiratory acidosis
Nitrogenous The body cannot store amino…

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Bile duct Carries bile down to the
gall bladder
Hepatocytes Have many microvilli
and carry out many
metabolic processes
such as detoxification.
Kupffer cells Macrophages that is
involved in the
production of bilirubin
through the breakdown
of haemoglobin

(d) Describe the formation of urea in the liver, including an outline…

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Renal artery Contains excess nutrient rich blood
Renal vein Contains balanced nutrient rich blood
Afferent arteriole The artery that contains unbalanced nutrients
before it enters the Bowman's capsule
Efferent arteriole The artery that contains a less rich blood
Distal convoluted Contains the filtrate to be made into urine

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(j) Outline the problems that arise from kidney failure and discuss the use of renal
dialysis and transplants for the treatment of kidney failure

Kidney failure leads to the:
Inability of the body to remove excess water from the blood
Inability to remove waste products from the blood

Advantages Disadvantages…

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