f214 excretion

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  • Created on: 30-12-13 11:23
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Module 2: Excretion
(a) Define the term excretion
The removal of metabolic wastes from the body
(b) Explain the importance of removing metabolic wastes,
Carbon dioxide Can affect the affinity of haemoglobin to oxygen
Takes up space in the haemoglobin
Can cause respiratory acidosis
Nitrogenous The body cannot store amino acids or protein
waste So it is converted into keto acid (high energy) and ammonia
Ammonia is converted into urea to be disposed, whilst keto acid
is used directly in respiration or stored.
(c) Describe the histology and gross structure of the liver
Hepatic Carries oxygenated
artery blood
Hepatic portal Carries deoxygenated
vein but nutrient rich blood

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Bile duct Carries bile down to the
gall bladder
Hepatocytes Have many microvilli
and carry out many
metabolic processes
such as detoxification.
Kupffer cells Macrophages that is
involved in the
production of bilirubin
through the breakdown
of haemoglobin
(d) Describe the formation of urea in the liver, including an outline of the ornithine cycle
(e) Describe the roles of the liver in detoxification
The liver has the ability to break down many toxins through the use of enzymes.…read more

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Renal artery Contains excess nutrient rich blood
Renal vein Contains balanced nutrient rich blood
Afferent arteriole The artery that contains unbalanced nutrients
before it enters the Bowman's capsule
Efferent arteriole The artery that contains a less rich blood
Distal convoluted Contains the filtrate to be made into urine
Glomerular capillary Capillaries within the glomerulus
Bowman's capsule Where blood is filtered
Collecting duct Duct that contains urine to be stored in
Proximal convoluted Where selective reabsorption occurs
Loop of Henle Where the selectively…read more

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Outline the problems that arise from kidney failure and discuss the use of renal
dialysis and transplants for the treatment of kidney failure
Kidney failure leads to the:
Inability of the body to remove excess water from the blood
Inability to remove waste products from the blood
Advantages Disadvantages
Freedom form time consuming dialysis Need of immunosuppressant for the life of the
Diet less limited Need major surgery under general anaesthetics
Feeling better Frequent checks for organ rejection
No longer seeing oneself as chronically…read more

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