Methods: Single cell recording

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3 Advantages of single cell recording
1) Best temporal and spatial resolution 2) Can access diverse range of brain functions at neuronal level 3) Less artefacts e.g. blinking
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5 Disadvantages of single cell recording
1) Low generalisation: can only use patients as participants 2) Experiment time is limited (1 week) 3) Task limited 4) Electrodes cannot be moved 5) Range of participants 6) Effect of medication
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Clinical applications of single cell recording
1) Epilepsy: location of seizure foci 2) Parkinsonian 3) Neural prosthetics 4) Depressive/OCD: Cingulotomy 5) Brain-computer-interface
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Name two invasive methods
1) single cell recording 2) PET
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Name two electrical recording methods
1) single cell recording 2) EEG/ERP
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Name two haemodynamic recording methods
1) fMRI 2) PET
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Name a electromagnetic method
TMS (stimulation)
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Name a magnetic recording method
MEG
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Points to consider when studying neuroimages
1) No proof activity was present 2) More activation does not mean more processing 3) Compare to resting condition 4) Null results are difficult to interpret
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What are the two types of cells in CNS?
Glial cells and Neuronal/nerve cells
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Contrast glia and neuronal cells in electrical signalling
Glial cells: no role in electrical signalling; Neuronal cells: generate electrical signals, communicates mainly via electro-chemical fashion
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Name the four main regions of a neuron
1) Axons (carrying signals to other neurons) 2) Dendrites (receiving signals from other neurons) 3) Soma/cell body (contains nucleus/genes) 4) Synaptic zone
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Describe an Action Potential
1) Conveys brain information 2) All or nothing (either fires or doesn't) 3) Info conveyed by pathways, not by form 4) 100mV and 1ms 5) Propogated along axon at fixed and slow speed
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Name two types of recording
Extracellular and intracellular recording
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What is extracellular recording?
A small electrode (
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How does intracellular recording work?
A glass pipette electrode (
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what are the main target areas of single cell recording in humans?
Mid-temporal lobe eg hippocampus, amygdala
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3 conditions of a patient for single cell recording
1) Failed to respond to medical management 2) quality of life would be enhanced by being seizure free 3) seizure focus must be localised and able to to be safely removed.
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Compare acute and chronic recording. Acute:
Acute: experiments inside op room, max 30 mins, noisy/challenging environment, patient is supine, patient responses are limited
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Compare acute and chronic recording. Chronic
chronic: easier environment than noisy acute setting, more variability across epilepsy centres e.g. devices and protocols, patients are less restricted and can perform more tasks over a longer period of time
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Procedures in chronic recording
1) Pre and post cognitive testing 2) Carefully document medical status 3) test several days after implant 4) test when patient alert 5) pre and post MRI scans
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Name two types of neuronal coding
Rate coding and temporal coding
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what is rate coding?
1) Info is in the mean firing rate of the neurone 2) robust for processing static objects/less suitable for fast action 3) most widely used and understood
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what is temporal coding?
1) Info is in the timing of the spike 2) No precise definition
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what is spike sorting?
electrodes, pitch waveform, amplitude, firing rate (e.g. how talkative)
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What does PSTH stand for?
Peri-stimulus time histogram
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Method for PSTH
1) Align spike sequences with stimulus onset 2) Divide stimulus period S divided by N bins of size Z 3) count the number of spikes k in each bin 4) complete histogram
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List 4 ways to establish link between neurons and perception
1) neurons should have discernible statistical differences in their firing rates between stimuli 2)firing not be affected by mere motor responses 3)direct interference of firing should affect response 4)be able to measure deficit after removal of neu
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Card 2

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5 Disadvantages of single cell recording

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1) Low generalisation: can only use patients as participants 2) Experiment time is limited (1 week) 3) Task limited 4) Electrodes cannot be moved 5) Range of participants 6) Effect of medication

Card 3

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Clinical applications of single cell recording

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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Name two invasive methods

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

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Name two electrical recording methods

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