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  • Created by: Lauren
  • Created on: 08-05-14 11:30
processing allows us to record, store nad later retrieve experiences and information
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getting information and coding it to ensure brain processing
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retaining information over time, unlimited storage of brain
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processes that access and use stored information
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Three-stage memory model
Sensory - working (primary) - long term (secondary)
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Sensory registers
initial information processors, store it briefly
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Iconic store
visual representation of information recieved = icon, very brief and limited, only 4/12 ltters identiifed and stored
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Echoic story
auditory information, stores speech for 4 seconds, one for speech/one for other sounds?
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Short term memory
temporarily holds a limited amount, no more than 5-9 items
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4 types of memory codes
Visual, phonological (sounds), semantic (meaning), motor (movement)
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combining items into units of meaning
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Usage of rehearsal
extends duration in STM and route to LTM
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3 components of working memory
Phonological loop, visuospatical sketchpad, edisodic buffer
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Phonological loop
store and articulatory rehearsal system, that silently repeats information you want to store
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Visuospacial sketchapd
stores visual and spatial information, works with phonological loop to picture the word
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Episodie buffer
integrates and manipulates info from P and VS and makes us aware of it, helpful in chunking
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Central executive
overall action, controls attention and integrates EB
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Serial position effect
Primacy (superior to early items), Recency (superior to recent items)
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Longer intervals between items =
more likely to be recaled
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If asked to do a task before recall
recency eliminated as STM memory overided
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Two types of encoding
Effortful processing and automatic processing
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Effortful processing
encoding initiated intentionally, concious attention eg - note taking
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Automatic processing
without intention, minimal attention eg - sequence of events
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Level of processing
deeper we process, the better we remember
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3 levels
Structural - shallow and looks, Phonological - intermediate and sounds, Semantic - deep and meaning
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Maintenance rehearsal
simple, rote repetition, info active in working memory, not to LTM
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Elaborative rehearsal
focuses on meaning and expands, more effective at transfer, eg - implications, examples
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Dual coding theory
verbal and visual codes improves success of one of them eg - fire truck easier than jealousy
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Method of Loci
aid that associates info with mental image of physical locations, assigning words to a room in the house
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Enactment effect
subject performed task means more likely to remember
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Mnemonic devices
memory aid that reorganises info into meaningful units, use info in LTM to help, peg words - rhyming
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mental framework, organised pattern to organise your world
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Organisation schemas
to enhance memory - items into a story
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Associative network
network of associated ideas and concepts, concept is nodes, line is association
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activation of one concept by another
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Neural networks
contrast associative network, nodes communicate with each other by inhibiting.enhibiting others, nodes contributes to concepts and responds to stimuli
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Parallel distributed processing models
nodes are distributed in parallel and spread activation to other nodes
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Two types of long term memory
Declarative and procedural
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Declarative memory
Factual knowledge, episodic - personal experiences (when, where, what), semantic - factual knowedge (words and concepts)
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Procedural memory
memory reflected in skills and actions, motor and cognitive skills, classically conditioned responces
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Explicit memory and 2 aspects
conscious or intentional memory retrieval as you recall or recognise something, recognition and recall
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memory that influences behaviour without awareness so feels like a guess, common with amnesia (pin in hand)
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Procedural memory
carry on cycling whilst thinking about an exam
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3 retrieval cues
Multiple cues, distinctiveness, autobiographical
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Role of amygdala
if related to an emotion, it is more effective
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Flashbulb memories
recollections so vivid and clear, more likely for suprising and consequential event, may be inaccurate/overconfident
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Encoding specifity principle
memory enhanced, when retrieval conditions match encoding
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Context-dependant memory
only remember information in same environment as learned
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State-dependant memory
retrieval greater if internal state matches that when learned
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Mood-congruent memory
recall events congruent with our mood
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occurs quickly and then slows down
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Encoding failure
much info is not deeply processed enough, lack of attention and deep processing
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Decay theory
time and disuse the LTM fades away, older memories do not always disappear first
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Interferance theory
forget info as impaired by other items
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2 types
Proactive - material learned in past interfers with new, Retroactive - new material interfers with old
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When does it occur?
During encoding, especially if cues are too few or weak
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Why is repression controversial?
because people forget pleasant memories as well so might just be natural process
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Prospective memory
remembering to perform a future activity, cognitive abilities of planning and atention allocation
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Two types of amnesia
Retrograde - loss of events before anmesia, Antergrade - loss of events after
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impaired memory and other cognitive deficits that accompany brain degeneration and interefere with normal functioning
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Alzheimer's disease
progressive brain disorder, most common over 65, symptoms such as forgetfullness, confusion
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Role of plaques and tangles
Plaques - clumps of protein on outside of neurons, Tangles - fibres that get twisted and wound between neurons
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Infantile amnesia
inability to remember first few years of our lives, due to immaturity of hypocampus
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Why can infants not remember?
lack a personal frame of reference, no self-concept to reference in order to organise rich memories
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Memory as a process
we construct memories by piecing together stored info in a way that seems real and accurate
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schemas cause us to encode and retrieve info in ways that fit preexisting assumptions, unusual info changed
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Misinformation effect
distortion of memory by misleading past events in, Loftus and Palmer
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Source confusion
recall info but unsure of place of encounter, suspect line up issues and if see's more than one then likely to confuse 1st time for crime
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Problems with child eyewitness
susceptible to misleading questions, unable to distinguish true or fall, don't intentionally lie as believe they are correct
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Individualist framework
focuses on importance of self identity
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Collectivist framework
personal identity defined by your group
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Cross-cultural memory differences
USA recalled independnat and back further, Chinese recalled others
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Sensory memory
process in sensory area of cerebal cortex
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Working memory
network of cortical areas across brain lobes, profrontal cortex supports central-executive functions
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Long term memory
hippocampus and surrounding are important
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Memory consolidation
hypothetical and gradual binding process - components of experience in regoins then bound together by hippocampus
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can impair coding of new and retrievel of old, cause retrograde amnesia
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responsible for encoding emotional aspects of memory
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important for procedural memory
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