Memory: an introduction
Memory is the process of encoding, storing and retrieving information. Encoding refers to the active process of putting stimulus information into a form that can be used by our memory system. The process of maintaining information in memory is called storage and the active processes of locating and using information stored in memory is called retrieval.
When Psychologists refer to the structure of memory, they are referring to two approaches to understanding memory - a literal one and a metaphorical one. Literally, memory may reflect the physiological changes that occur in the brain when an organism learns. Metaphorically, memory is viewed as a store or a process made up of systems and subsystems. These divisions may not necessarily have neurological meaning but they are useful metaphorical shorthand for describing aspects of memory. They are a way of explaining aspects of memory.