What is the order of memory?
Sensory memory, short term memory, long term memory and semantic memory
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Who described a clear split between the 3 memory systems?
Atkinson and Shiffrin
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What did they suggest about sensory registerS?
Brief sensory stores (iconic memory, echoic memory
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What did they suggest about short term store?
Primary memory held for seconds maintained by rehearsal limited capacity, limited duration
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What is the definition of long term store?
Secondary memory. unlimited capacity and duration
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What did Jevons show?
Throw a handful of beans onto a black tray containing a white box. how many beans are in the white box, accurate up to 8, above 9 only right half the time
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What did averbach do?
Tachistoscope to display dots for brief intervals masked by a subsequent erasing patter, backwards masking, asked to estimate of dots as a funnction of total number and variable interval
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What did Averbach find?
extra viewing time up to 150ms the number of dots he could count increased steadily
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however, what happened with more than 8 dots?
Extra viewing time makes relatively little difference
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What did Sperling presume?
When a pps was asked to recall a whole grid of 12 items, their maximum recall was 4/5 items,
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However, what happened when they have an immediate cue to recall just one row?
Performance is close to 100% accurate for that row as if they remember 11 items
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What happens if the recall cue is delayed by 1 second?
back down to 30% performance rate
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The full grid of 12 items was once available in visual memory but decays rapidly
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Sperlings results could support brief sensory sore but ..?
If cue item by item, estimates can be larger
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What is primacy?
Traditionally interpreted as down to rehearsal
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What is the flat mid-part of curve?
Interpreted as transfer to long term store
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What is recency?
Traditionally interpreted as the capacity of the short term store
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What did Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) suggest?
The modal model or multistore model of memory uses rehearsal to transfer into LTS
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What can rehearsal do?
Improve memory
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However what is it?
Neither necessary or sufficient
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Why isnt it necessary?
The flat part of the serial position curve is not at zero even for unrehearsed items
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Why isnt it sufficient?
It doesnt always work maintenance vs elaborative rehearsal
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What does clinical evidence show?
Patients with only STM and only LTM but STM deficits arent as devastating to LTM as we might expect
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What did Baddeley and Hitch stimulate?
STM deficits by using tasks that should fill up the STS
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By what task?
Remember a string of digits
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What is a secondary task and what was found?
Sentence verification, semantic judgements, list learning, understanding of prose, all impaired but not devastated
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What did Baddeley and Hitch propose?
STS must have three components
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What are these three components?
Central executive, visuo satial scratchpad, articulatory loop
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What is the central executive?
Acts as a general attentional controller governing the flow of informaation to two slave systems
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What was Short term memory performance?
Is better for visuospatial materials
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For example?
Brooks, 8 item spatial span vs 6 item verbal span
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What is this an example of?
Dual task interference
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What is the Spatial task?
An outside point
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What is the verbal task?
Is each word a concrete noun? a bird in the hand is not in the bush
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What is another example of verbal output, spatial output?
(Yes, yes,yes, no) Point at answers in turn
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What is the phonological similarity effect?
Poor recall of word lists where items sound similar even when items are presented visually - items are encoded according to the way they sound
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What is irrelevant speech effect?
REcall impaired by simultaneous speech - involuntary phonological encoding
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What is meant by word length effect?
Serial recall is approximately as many words as you can read out aloud in 2 seconds,
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What did they find about span?
lower for longer words than for shorter ones even presented visually, spans are longer for faster speakers
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What is the central executive?
sensory information --> sensory perceptual structures --> Trigger -->psychological processing structures --> effector system
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What is the role of central executive?
Control of behaviour based on action schemas, SAS can overrides the general process of contention scheduling by directly activating or inhbiting schemas
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What could be a cure for insomnia?
Random interval generation
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What is an experimental task?
Seems to load the central executive is random number generation
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What is the problem with Classical Wm?
Has real problems accounting for semantic eg sentence span is about 15 words
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What did Baddeley suggest?
REvised the basic model to allow interaction with LTM eg, chunking via episodic buffer
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What do later additions include?
Hedonic detector to deal with emotional information
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What did the embedded processes model suggest?
It is not necessary to distinguish between the STS and LTS- STS is just the currently activated component of the LETS
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What is the simple model?
Scale invariant memory, perception and learning
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Who created it?
Brown et al
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What did they create/
Mathematical models based on temporal discriminability that apply to both STS and LTS
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What did Ebbinghaus do?
Memory experients on himself, he used the method of savings, having learned a list once, how much faster can he learn it a second time - list of nonsense syllables
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What was analysed?
A wide range of forgetting functions from Ebbinghaus onwards and concludes that they are well described as a power function
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What does the finding about memory performance?
It reduces as a power function over time suggests that although initial forgetting is quite fast, memory is almost never completely degraded
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What is unusual?
Method of savings as a memory test and can be indirect a potentionl test of implicit memory
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What should participants do?
More normal tests, using more everyday stimuli also shown an Ebbinghaus shaped forgetting function
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What did Bahrick do?
Tested 733 people's memory for Spanish taught at school up to 50 years ago
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What was performance was closely related?
Initial learning level even 50 years later
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What did they find?
Memory decayed rapidly over the first few years but then leveled off and was still way above chance 50 years
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What did Standing test?
The capacity of LTS
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What did Participants do?
Watch slides for 5 seconds each and then have a recognition test 2 days later, even with 10,000 items learned performance was at 83% on a subsequent recognition test
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What was it better with?
Vivid pictures though slightly worse with words
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What did Shepard, Potter, standing et al find?
Very good recognition even for large numbers of briefly presented pictures
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What did Hororwitz and Wolfe find?
Pps had to try and spot the jumbled T hidden amongst jumbled L shapes, the more L shapes, the longer it takes, But search slope is unchanged even when the stimuli are randomly interchanged every 83.33, as if we dont even remember where we have just l
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What did Visual LTS do?
Results depend more on conceptual simularity among items than on perceptual similarity
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What did Bahrick test?
the ability of college teachers to recognise and identify name from photo previous students
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What did Young, hay and Ellis find?
Errors in everyday face processing, 22 pps keep a diary for 8 weeks noting down all the errors they make in face recognition and identification, remembering a face can take many forms
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What did schooler and Engstler schooler find?
Can you improve face memory by carefully describing daces you see?
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What did they find?
Giving a verbal description of a face actually seems to impair subsequent memory for the face in a recognition
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What did the Melcher and Schooler find?
The value of verbalisation can depend of expertise
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What did Novice wine drinkers have?
Their memories enhanced by verbalisation
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What about expert winetasters?
Memories are unaffected
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But what about intermediate wine drinkers?
Have their memory almost completely removed by the process of verbalisation
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What was said about the capacity long term memory?
appears to be virtually limitless, but actual performance depends on exactly how you test memory
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what about if you test memory for the wrong things?
Performance can be very poor
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Who described a clear split between the 3 memory systems?


Atkinson and Shiffrin

Card 3


What did they suggest about sensory registerS?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What did they suggest about short term store?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is the definition of long term store?


Preview of the front of card 5
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