Meiosis & Variation

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Phytogenetic Species Concept
Defining a species as a group of similar organisms that have similar morphalogy, phisiology, embryology & behaviour
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Biological Species Concept
Defining a species as a group of similar organisms that can interbreed & produce fertile offspring
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Genetic Shift
The change in allele frequency in a population
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Selection Pressure
The environmental factor that confers greater chances of surviving
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Carrying Capacity
The maximum population size that can be maintained over a period of time in a particular habitat
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Discontinuous Variation
Phenotypic differences with clearly distinguisable catergories (qualitative)
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Continuous Variation
Phenotypic differences with no distinct catergories (quantative)
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Population
A group of individuals of the same species that can interbreed living in the same place at the same time
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Null Hypothesis
There is no significant difference between the observed & expected results, any difference is due to chance
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Chi Squared
A statistical test to see whether there is a significant difference between observed & expected results
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Complimentary Epistasis
At least 1 dominant allele is required at 2 different loci to result in the expression on 1 phenotype
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Dominant Epistais
A dominant allele at 12 locus prevents the expression of alleles at a 2nd locus
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Recessive Epistasis
Homozygous recessive alleles at 1 locus prevent the expression of an allele at another locus
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Epistasis
The interaction of genes on different loci where one gene masks or supresses the expression of another
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Dihybrid Inheritance
When 2 characteristics located on different pairs of homologus chromosomes can be inherited together
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Codominant
A characteristic where both alleles contribute to the phenotype
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Recessive
Characteristic in which the allele responsible is only expressed in the phenotype if there is no dominat allele present
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Dominant
Characteristic in which the allele responsible is expressed in the phenotype even in those with heterozygous genotypes
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Heterozygous
2 different alleles fo a gene
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Homozygous
2 identical alleles for a gene
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Phenotype
Observable characteristic of an organism
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Genotype
The alleles present in an individual for a particulart characteristic
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Gene
A length of DNA that codes for 1 or more polypeptides. some genes code for RNA & regulate other genes
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Genetic Variation
Variation of genetic information in a gene pool
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Mutation
Structural change to genetic material either a gene or a chromosome
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Zygote
A diploid cell resulting from the fusion of 2 haploid gametes
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Oocyte
A cell in an ovary which may undergo meiotic division to form an ovum
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Ovum
A mature female reproductive cell of an animal especially
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Spermatozoa
The mature motile male sex call of an animal, typically having a compact head & 1 or more long flagella for swimming
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Centromeres
The region of the chromosome to which the spindle fibre is attached during cell division
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Haploid Cells
A cell that has half the usual number of chromosomes
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Chromatin
A complex of nucleic acids & proteins, which condenses to form a chromosome during cell division
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Gametes
Specialised sex cells, in many organisms the gametes are haploid & are produced by meiosis
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Allele
An alternative version of a gene
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Crossing Over
Where non-sister chromatids exchange alleles during prophase I of meiosis
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Chiasmata
The points where non-sister chromatids within a bivalent join
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Bivalent
Pair of synapsed homlogous chromosomes during prophase I & metaphase I
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Meiosis
A reduction division in which the resulting daughter cells are haploids that can be used for sexual reproduction
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Homologous Chromosomes
A pair of chromosomes with the same gene sequence as another
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Biological Species Concept

Back

Defining a species as a group of similar organisms that can interbreed & produce fertile offspring

Card 3

Front

Genetic Shift

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Selection Pressure

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Carrying Capacity

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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