Industrial period (c1700-1900)

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Humphrey Davy
Found that nitrous gas isn't dangerous & gives similar effects as alcohol but doesn't make your blood pump faster
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Horace Wells
Noticed people taking nitrous oxide could injure themselves without pain
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Long, Morton and Liston
Experiments on purpose/use of Ether
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Ether
+Reliable, +Can operate in new places, +Knocks you out completely, -Makes you very sick, -Explosive, -Can't operate on the face (administered through the nose) CHANCE
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Simpson
Discovered chloroform, helps people giving birth. Easier to administer than ether. RISK-TAKING, finally discovered something that worked but made him ill, CHANCE, sniffed random chemicals, SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, COMMUNICATION, with Liston, help
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Pasteur/ Germ Theory
Spontaneous gen. theory, decay causes microbes. Investigates off wine, uses microscope and discovers microbes. Microbes make things go off. Proves with water in swan neck flasks, air in but no microbes = water not off. GERM THEORY
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Pasteur/ Germ Theory cont.
Investigates ill silk worms. Finds microbes cause disease in living creatures, 1867.
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Robert Koch
Look for link between particular germ and disease. 1875 found microbe which caused anthrax. Found germ that caused septicema, prove by giving daughter's mice septicema then cure. Found way to stain microbes, industrial dyes, & devise way to grow germ
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Robert Koch cont.
Germ for tuberculosis, 1882, cholera, 1883. Camera for evidence of what he found. Solid culture to grow/breed germs. INDIVIDUAL BRILLIANCE, CHANCE, SCIENCE & TECH., GOVERNMENT (research), WAR (with France)
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Lister
Sees Pasteur's germ theory, realise people die in operations because of germs. Visited sewers, find carbolic acid stops sewage from rotting, invention of spray which pumped acid all over patient and surgeon's hands. COMMUNICATION, CHANCE, IB, S & T
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Problems with Lister
Too complicated. Don't understand germ theory. Smelly and harmful to surgeons. Other methods, eg cleanliness, more effective
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Lister's legacy: Halsted
Halsted realised that Lister's pump was making his nurse's hands bad and so he made rubber gloves for his nurses to wear and then realised that it cut his death rate down so made them all wear surgical masks and gloves.
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Lister's legacy: Neuber and Bergmann
Didn't like Lister's method so used steam to clean their equipment and in their operating theatre to keep everything cleaning and stop infection.
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Florence Nightingale
Helped in the Crimean war, made sure wards were clean and patients well fed, supplies were plentiful and water supply, sanitation and care for patients improved.
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Nightingale: attitudes towards nurses
Invention of telegraph allows news of her work to be spread to Britain, hospital standards improve, money raised (Nightingale Fund), sets up training school for nurses, increased public awareness
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Garret-Anderson
+Took exam in medicine through loop hole, -After exam society changed rules to prevent other women emmenating her +Founded the New Hospital for Women in London, staffed by women +Determination paved way for others
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Edwin Chadwick
Permission to inquire into living conditions of the poor in East of London. 1842, Report on the Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population published, conditions are poor, shocking. Convinced dirt -> sickness -> poverty -> cost for country
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Why does cost matter?
Cost for the country is important as if you raise taxes to pay for things then you might not get re-elected.
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John Snow
1848, investigated cholera during the outbreak. One area of London, got water
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Causes of illness
Spontaneous generation theory, replaced by germ theory in approximately 1867.
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Treatments of illness
Chemists, increasing use of industrial medicines e.g. sulphonamides, chloroform etc.
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Edward Jenner
Link to cowpox and smallpox by injecting cowpox into a boy. Cowpox cured smallpox. Basis for vaccinations.
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Positives of Jenner
Success. Saves lots of lives. Lots of publicity. Government gave £10,000 for vaccine program.
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Negatives of Jenner
Fear, animal disease & unknown. Doctors, lose innoculation income
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Negatives of Jenner
Fear, animal disease & unknown. Doctors, lose inoculation income
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Noticed people taking nitrous oxide could injure themselves without pain

Back

Horace Wells

Card 3

Front

Experiments on purpose/use of Ether

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

+Reliable, +Can operate in new places, +Knocks you out completely, -Makes you very sick, -Explosive, -Can't operate on the face (administered through the nose) CHANCE

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Discovered chloroform, helps people giving birth. Easier to administer than ether. RISK-TAKING, finally discovered something that worked but made him ill, CHANCE, sniffed random chemicals, SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, COMMUNICATION, with Liston, help

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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