MB1 - Social Thinking Definitions

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  • Created by: Psych951
  • Created on: 10-05-18 10:26
Compliance
Surface change in behaviour which isn't associated with underlying cognitive changes.
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Compliance Techniques
Strategies that manipulate people into complying
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Door-in-the-face
Making a large request and expecting rejection, to then make a small request which is likely to be agreed
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Foot-in-the-door
Persuading someone to comply with a small request and then asking to do more
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Norm of Reciprocity
Expectation that favours will be returned
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Lowballing
Increasing the cost of an action someone has already committed to
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Obedience
Behaving under the direction of an authority figure/rule
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Social Norms
Shared expectations about how others should behave and think
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Social Role
Set of norms that characterise how to behave in a certain social position
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Role Conflict
The norms for two different social roles clash
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Norm Formation
Emergence and influence of often unspoken 'rules' and average thinking and behaviour in a group
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Social Facilitation
The presence of others heightens arousal leading to a tendency to act on impulses/dominant responses
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Conformity
Adjustment of behaviour and attitudes to a group standard
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Normative Social Influence
Conform to majority to gain rewards of acceptance from the group
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Informational Social Influence
Conform to majority because you believe have more accurate knowledge
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Referent Informational Influence
Conform to members of the group that we identify with more
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Subjective Validity
Group agreement gives confidence to your own thoughts
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Minority Influence
Less artificial change in the behaviour, aligning with the minority
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Social Loafing
Expend less individual effort when working in a group
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Collective Effort Model
People put in a =s much effort at they expect is needed to reach the goal
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Social Compensation
Working harder in a group than when alone to make up for others low effort
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Group Polarisation
Group of like-minded people discuss issues causing the average of each member's opinion to become more extreme
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Groupthink
Tendency of a group to suspend critical thinking because they seek agreement
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Mind Guards
Members in a group who try to prevent negative information from reaching the rest of the group
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Deindividuation
Loss of individuality leading to disinhibited behaviour for/with a group - Responsible as a group not an individual
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Out-Group Homogeneity Bias
Think out-group members are more similar to one another than members of in-groups
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In-Group favouritism
Perceive situations in a way that is favourable to in-groups
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Realistic Conflict Theory
Stereotypes are resistant to change because competition for resources fosters stereotypes
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Social Identity Theory
Stereotypes are resistant to change because they enhance personal self-esteem
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Stereotypes
Mental representations of a whole group
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Prejudice
Negative attitudes of someone based on a group they may identify with
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Discrimination
Behaviour that reflect prejudice
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Explicit Prejudice
Prejudice that is controlled and may be expressed publicly
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Implicit Prejudice
Prejudice that arises automatically and are hidden
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Equal Status Contact
A way to bring groups together in close contact, with equal status, common goals and recreate norms to reduce prejudice
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Shooter Bias
Police have a tendency to perceive black men as being armed more than white men
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Norm of Social Responsibility
Should try to contribute to the welfare of society
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Altruism
Helping others for the purpose of enhancing their well-being
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Egoistic Goals
Helping others to enhance our own welfare
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Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis
Altruism is the product of empathy
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Diffusion of Responsibility
Process that inhibits individual providing help in the presence of other individuals because they feel others around them are responsible
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Social Comparison
Process that inhibits individual providing help in the presence of other individuals because those around them aren't and so the need is not urgent
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5 step bystander intervention process
Notice, Emergency, Responsibility, Self-efficacy, Decision
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Halo Effect
Attractive people are associated with being more successful, intelligent, kind etc.
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Matching Effect
Tend to choose partners with a similar level of attractiveness to ourselves
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Social Exchange Theory
Relationships are governed by rewards and costs that are important to the individual
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Passionate Love
Intense emotion, arousal and yearning for partner
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Companionate Love
Deep caring and affection
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Sternberg's Triangular Theory of Love
Combination of three components (passion, intimacy and commitment) create different types of love and all three create consumate love
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Frustration
An interruption of progress towards a goal that may result in aggression
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Attribution of Intentionality
Our aggression is mediated by whether we evaluate the source of anger to have intended to cause upset
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Catharsis
Freudian theory that aggressive impulses build and so need to be released vicariously or directly regularly to prevent over controlled hostility
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Social Psychology
Study of how we react to, view and influence other individuals
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Attributions
Judgements about the causes of our own and other's behaviours and outcomes
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Personal (internal) vs. situational (external) attributions
Personal says own characteristics cause behaviour and situational says aspects of environment
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Fundamental Attribution Error
Underestimate impact of situation and overestimate personal factors when explaining others' behaviour
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Self-Serving Bias
Use personal attributions to explain own success and situational for failure
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Forming Impressions
Associating a label to someone and making evaluations
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Mental Set
Readiness to perceive the world in a particular way
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Attitudes
Positive or negative evaluative reactions towards stimulus which guides behaviour and thoughts
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Theory of planned behaviour
Intention to behave is stronger when we have a positive attitude of the behaviour, when subjective norms support the behaviour and when we feel in control
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Subjective Norms
Our perceptions of what other people think we should do
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Cognitive Dissonance
Attitude change occurs because two or more cognitions contradict causing distress
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Self-Perception theory
Attitude change occurs because we make inferences about our own attitudes from our behaviour
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Self-Concept
Representation of self made up of schemas
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Reflected Appraisals Principle
Others' views are incorporated into self-concept
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Self-Discrepancy Theory
Identity is formed of ideal, actual and ought to be self
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Regulatory Focus Theory
Ideal self has promotional goals and ought self has prevention goals
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Self-Esteem
Feelings of self-worth that arise from making evaluations about self
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Strategies that manipulate people into complying

Back

Compliance Techniques

Card 3

Front

Making a large request and expecting rejection, to then make a small request which is likely to be agreed

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Persuading someone to comply with a small request and then asking to do more

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Expectation that favours will be returned

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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