• Created by: Jenna k
  • Created on: 15-04-14 16:02
What is the gross structure of the lungs?
Lungs, Nasal and baccal cavity, trachea, bronchus, bronchiole and avliole.
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Define tidal volume
The volume of air normally taken in in one breath at rest
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Define ventialtion rate
The numebr of breaths taken in one minute.
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Define Pulmonary ventialtion
the total volume of the air that is moved in and out of the lungs during one minute
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What is the equation for pulmonary ventilation?
Tidal volume x ventialtion rate.
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What is pulmonary ventialtion measured in?
dm^3 min^-1
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What are the two mechanisms of breathing?
Inspiration and expriation
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Explain inspiration.
When you breath in your diaphragm contracts, your external inter constal muscles contract and your rib cage moves up and out. All of this increase the volume of the thorax. Atmospheric pressure grater so air diffuses into the lungs.
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Explain expiration.
The internal constan muslces contract, the diaphragm relaxes and rib cage moes down and in. This all decrease the volume of the thorax. The pressure is now grater in the lungs than in the atmospher so the air is forced out.
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What are the essentual features of an exchange surface?
Large surface to volume ration. Very thin diffusion path. Partially permeable. Movement of internal and external medium to maintain a concentration gradient.
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What is the role of the alveoli in gas exchange?
The high conc of oxygen causes the unloading of carbon dioxide form the blood cells and the loading of oxygen. This is increased because of the single thickness of the cell walls and the steep concentration gradient.
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Descirbe how Surfactant helps the structure of the lungs.
Surfactant is a monolayer of phospholipids that line on a water layer that sits on the cell surface of the alveoli. When you exhae the pressure could collaps the alveoli. Well when shrinks the phosphoipids repel each other and the alveoli is inflated
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What is the cause of Pulmonary turberculosis?
A rod-shaped bacterium
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What are the symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis?
cough, tierdness, loss of appitide and weight
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How can pulmonary turberculosis be transmitted?
Through prologed periods contact, talking,laughing, sneezing, coughing etc.
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What is the caourse of infection of pulmonary tuberculosis?
Primary infection, occurs in children where there is an imflamation and enlargement of the lymph nodes and lungs. Causes painful coughing. Secondary infrection occurs in adults where bateria destroys the tissue so we try to cough up and infect rest u
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How does pulomary fibrosis affect funtion of the lungs?
Scar tissues build an compromise the eleactic fibers of the lungs. So sufferers are short of breath had a cough to get rid of the scare tissue, and are tired as there is not enough oxygne getting in for respiration.
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How does asthma effect the functions of the lungs?
Asthma, caused by allergen, can cause the airways to release histamines that cause inflamation and over secretion of mucus which narrows the airways more so tidal voume is decreased and ventrialtion is increased to get oxygen into our blood.
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How does emphysema effect the functions of our lungs?
The elactic fibers are permentally stretched due to smocking so they are no longer abel to force ari out of their lungs. This leads o a shortness of brath, a chronic cough and blueish skin colour becasue there is not enough oxygen getting into the bl
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Card 2


Define tidal volume


The volume of air normally taken in in one breath at rest

Card 3


Define ventialtion rate


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Card 4


Define Pulmonary ventialtion


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Card 5


What is the equation for pulmonary ventilation?


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