LT10- Religion and Social Groups

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  • Created by: Heather
  • Created on: 04-11-15 18:48
What are the three different social groups which are compared?
-Gender, -Age, -Ethnicity,
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For gender differences, who is argueably more religious and evidence to support this?
-Women are more relgious than men, -In 2005, 1.8 million women in England were churchgoers, against 1.36 million people,
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For another difference between genders, what does Miller and Hoffman find?
Miller and Hoffman found women express a greater interest in religion, have stronger personal commitment, and attend church more,
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For differences between genders, what has what sociologist found about sects?
-Bruce, -He estimated that there are twice as many women as men invovled in sects,
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For differences between gender, what did what sociologist find in the Kendal project?
-Heelas- Heelas foudn that in the Kendal project 80% of the NRMs' participants were female,
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For reasons between differences in religion between gender, what are the three different paragraph topics?
-Socialisation and gender role, -Women and the new age, -Compensation for deprivation,
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For socialisation and gender roles as a reason for differences, what did what sociologist argue about qualities that religion values,
-Hoffman and Miller, -They argue women are taught to be more passive, obedient and caring. These are qualities that religion values, it therefore follows that women will be more religious.
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What do Hillman and Hoffman argue about men and these religious qualities?
Men who show these qualities of obedience, passiveness and caring are more likely to be religious,
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What did Miller and Hoffman also argue about differences in work?
They argue women are more likely to work part time or not at all so are more able to organise their time around church activities,
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Confirming arguments for socialisation and gender role, what does what sociologist argue about women being closer to key human questions?
-Davie, -He argues women are closer to key human questions concerning birth and death (e.g. due to child birth and caring for sick or elderly relatives) and therefore more in need of religious explanations and the meaning of life,
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For women and the new age as a reason for differences, why are women more likely to be attracted to new age movements?
AS they are more in tune with nature and healing (e.g. again through child birth), and NAMs are often linked to the 'natural' and healing (which in turn give women a higher sense of worth) and so are more likely to join them,
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Continuing this, what is another reason why it is possible that women like the idea of NAMs?
As it highlights the idea of being 'authentic' and 'real' rather than just acting out roles within society and life. E.g. women may be more likely than men to see their gender role within society as restrictive and therefore are attracted to NAMs.
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On the other hand, why might women like the idea of NAMs because they are attracted to fundamentalism?
AS some women may prefer the idea of stuctured gender roles and therefore be attracted to fundamentalism,
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For compensation for deprivation as a reason for differences, what sociolgist argued there were 3 types of deprivation in women, what are they and what do they lead to?
-Glock and Stark, -They argue that there are a number of forms of deprivation common in women which may lead to higher sect membership than men, -Organismic deprivation, -Ethically deprived, -Socially deprived,
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How does women being more likely to suffer organismic deprivation lead to a high sect membership?
It means they are more likely to have mental health issues and seek healing through religion,
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How does women being more likely to suffer ethical deprivation lead to a higher sect membership?
AS it means they are more likely to be morallu conservative and see the world in moral decline. Sects tend to share this view, thus appeal to women,
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How does women being more likely to suffer social deprivation lead to a higher sect membership?
As women are more likely to be poor and look to religion for explanations of pverty. Sects especially attract poorer groups,
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However, why does what sociologist argue these explanations arent relevant due to secularisation?
-Brierly, -He suggests women are leaving the church at a much faster rate than men e.g. there was a 16.4% fall in Church attendance between 1900-2005. This could be due to increasing pressures from other spheres of life,
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As another evaluation, what did what sociologist argue about the rejection of gender roles and how this leads to a decline in women's religion?
-Brown,- He argues women are increasingly rejecting traditional gender roles and wish to make their own choices. Because traditional religions such as Christianity are closely linked to these roles, women are beginning to reject religion.
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What is the difference between ethnicities and religion?
There is a higher than average religious participation in most ethnic minorities. Muslims, hindus and non-white Christians are much more likely to see religion as important than white Christians,
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Give evidence for these differences between ethnicities and religion?
11% of white Anglicans see religion as being important in their lives opposed to 74% of Muslims,
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What are the two different cultural explanations for differences between religion and ethnicities?
-Cultural defence, -Cultural transition,
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For cultural defence, what does what sociologist argue about religion operating as a sense of cultural identity in a new environment?
-Bruce, -He argues religion operates as a sense of cultural identity in an uncertain and hostile environment. Religion becomes a basis pf community solidarity that preserves culture and language.
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Give an example of community solidarity as Bruce expresses here?
Pentecostalism- This was founded as a result of racism against young Afro-Caribbean immigrants in the mid-sixties,
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What does Bruce argues about community identity promotes?
It promotes social integreation by protecting traditional values and building solidarity.
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For cultural transition, what can religion help to ease?
Religion can help ease the transitions between cultures at times of immigration.
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For cultural transition, what does what sociologist argue about America?
Herberg argues that high levels of religious partipation in the USA are a result of its 'cultural melting pot' origins-e.g. Muslim, Hindu,
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Who supports Herberg's theory and why?
Bruce, -He found a similar story among communities in the UK,
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What is another reason for ethnic differences in religion based on the family?
-Family pressures, -Family structures are much tighter in Asian communities and there is more pressure to conform to religious behavior,
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What is the last reason for ethnic differences in religion based on social identity?
Dress, food, customs provides individuals with a sense of identity, this can help to resist racism or stigma. 70% of British Muslims are under 25 signalling the growing importance of religion for providing security and certainty,
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Whose work supports arguments for cultural defence and transition being important in Britain and what?
-Pryce, -He suggests Pentecostalism acts to aid cultural transition of the African Caribbean community in Bristol by encouraging self reliance and thrift-like a 'protestant ethic',
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However, like gender, why aren't these arguments argueably relevant and what sociologist supports this and what does he say?
Due to secularisation, -Modood et al found examples of decline in religiousity in the second generation of immigrants,
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What is another reason why these arguments may not be valid due to how religion can have the opposite effect of helping immigrants 'fit in'?
Rather than helping young ethnic minorities fit within society, religion might be used as a rejection of the host society
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Give an example of this in Rastafarianism?
Rastafarianism sees our society as racist and exploitive,
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Lastly, what does what sociologist argue about for ethnic minorities increasingly rejecting their parents' religion?
-Samad, -Argues many young South Asian Muslims reject their parents' conformity to cultural traditions whilst embracing their Muslim identity. This identity resists parental opinion and challenges family prohibition,
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What is the general trend for differences in religion between ages?
Not including children and the elderly, the older the people are the more likely they are to attend church,
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Why are under 15s more likely to go to church?
As they are taken by their parents,
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Why are the over 65s less likely to go to church?
Due to illness and disability so may be unable to get there,
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What sociologist provides two explanations for age differences and what are they?
-Voas and Crockett, -Ageing effect, -Generational effect,
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For the ageing affect, what does what sociologist argue about why people become more religious as they get older?
-Heelas, -As people approach death, they become naturally more concerned about 'where they are going'. As a result, people are more likely to attend church,
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For the generational effect, what is the general trend it is proposing?
It suggests each generation is less religious than the last,
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Therefore, how does the effect explain why there are more older people in church?
They explain this not because they are getting more religious as they age but because religion was popular when they grew up,
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What evidence is there to support this with 15-19 year olds?
Since 1979, the amount of 15-19 year olds that attend church has fallen dramatically,
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What is predicted from these trends?
That the trends will continue and the over 65s will soon be the majority within the church,
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For young people and religion, give 4 reasons sociologists give as to why young people appear less religious?
-Declining attraction, -Spiritual marketplace, -Declining religious education, -Pragmatic reasons,
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What explanation do sociologists offer as to why yougn people have declining attraction to religion?
They argue they deem religion as old fasioned, out of touch with modern society and controversial e.g. anti-abortion,
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What is the spiritual marketplace an explanation as to why young people appear less religious?
As there is growing exposure to diverse ranges of spiritual ideas,
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Why is the declining religious education an explanation as to why young people appear less religious?
Sunday schools are in danger of disappearing by 2016, there are moves away from religious assemblies at school and R.E in secondary school is no longer compulsory,
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Why are pragmatic reasons an explanation as to why young people appear to be less religious?
As leisure is much bigger part of life, young people have more demands on their time,
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However, why are these arguments argueably irrelevant like gender and ethnicity and what sociologist suggests what to support this?
-Secularisation, -Voas and Crockett suggest that religious observance decreases with every generation.
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As another evaluative point, why can the arguments about age and an example?
Age can have no impact on religiousity e.g. Pentacostalism can have very young membership,
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Another evaluative point, argueably, why have young people not lost all religiousity?
As they are transforming ways of worship into the secular world.
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What has what sociologist found to support this?
Lynch studied the techno dance scene and discovered young people may attach religious and spiritual significance to a 'sacred' experience such as clubbing,
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To conclude, what would postmodernists argue about studying each group alone?
Postmodernists would argue we should look at a combination of the three to gain a true and whole understanding of differences between social groups,
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To conclude, what are postmodernists critical of an why?
They are critical of the definition of social groups- Modern definitions of gender and ethnicity have become outdated and therefore cannot be used in a description of religion's relationship to social groups,
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Card 2

Front

For gender differences, who is argueably more religious and evidence to support this?

Back

-Women are more relgious than men, -In 2005, 1.8 million women in England were churchgoers, against 1.36 million people,

Card 3

Front

For another difference between genders, what does Miller and Hoffman find?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

For differences between genders, what has what sociologist found about sects?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

For differences between gender, what did what sociologist find in the Kendal project?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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