Liberal Reforms

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Introduction - Wider Context
Early 19th century - social problems widespread with little help from the government "laissez faire". Thought those i poverty where so by their own doing.
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Introduction - Context
Booth - London survey to prove poverty wasn't own fault - results worse than expected - 1/3 in poverty. ROWNTREE furthered this to prove not just Ldn - YORK. Common problems eg unemployment. ISSUE IN PUBLIC EYE - laissez faire not working.
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Introduction - Factors
Key areas that people were at risk of poverty - young, old, unemployed, sick.
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Introduction - Line of Argument
Left a lot to be desired BUT laid foundations for welfare state and made vital move from laissez faire to state intervention.
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The Young - School Meals Knowledge
Survey showed that many children in schools were malnourished, sick and recieving no help. To see to this the Liberal government introduced free school meals. Meant wether or not they recieved meals at home they would have at least one per day.
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The Young - School Meals Argument
Varied successes - in schools it was implemented in the children lost weight over the holidays, showing that the meals were making a difference. HOWEVER, not all schools offered the meals so many went without until it was standardised later.
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The Young - Free Medical Inspections Knowledge
Introduced in 1908. Got at least three times throughout school career.
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The Young - Free Medical Inspections Argument
Varied successes - issues identified but families could often not afford to do anything about it. HOWEVER, this was corrected in 1912 when free medical clinics were introduced
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The Young - Children's Charter Knowledge
Borstals - adult prisons just taught to become better criminal. Minimum age on alcohol and cigarettes - improve behaviour and health.
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The Young - Children's Charter Argument
Right for health and behaviour but was, and still is, hard to enforce.
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The Young - Argument
Well planned and positive rules but they weren't enforced enough to be fully successful.
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The Old - Knowledge
Before this time the old had been given little help and usually spent their old age in poverty.
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The Old - Old Age Pensions Act Knowledge
Over age of 70 - 35 shillings a week and combined amount for couples.
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The Old - Old Age Pensions Act Argument
Average life expectancy was 45 in poverty so few would live to benefit from teh pensions. Hard to enforce because few had birth certificates. Pension wasn't enough - 35 pence was ON the poverty line. Restrictions on who could receive it.
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The Unemployed - Knowledge
'Poverty was the root of all social problems" National Insurance Act - unemployed given benefits to insured worker for 15 weeks a year - contributionary system.
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The Unemployed - Argument
Previously received no financial help so them and their family would suffer from finiancial problems (starvation, homelessness). HOWEVER, it only applied to certain areas of work (mainly seasonal) - only a limited time.
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The Unemployed - Argument
OVERALL - not fully successful. It only applied to certain people and didn't help long term unemployment.
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The Sick - Knowledge
Where poverty rooted from - time taken off work etc. ANother area of National Insurance "four for nine pence". Paid sickness leave, medical care.
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The Sick - Argument
Successful - didn't lose job when sick - stopped spread of disease due to medical help. HOWEVER - salary reduction - only benefitted worker. OVERALL - if included families and further developed would have been v. successful but was slightly lacking.
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Conclusion
Reasonably successful. Never sought to introduce welfare state and they didn't. Young - lots of progress with school meals/borstals. Elderly - not successful other than intention. Certain sick and unemployed helped a lot.
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Overall Conclusion
Acts had potential to be better than they were and needed to be better thought out/enforced. HOWEVER, they b
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Introduction - Context

Back

Booth - London survey to prove poverty wasn't own fault - results worse than expected - 1/3 in poverty. ROWNTREE furthered this to prove not just Ldn - YORK. Common problems eg unemployment. ISSUE IN PUBLIC EYE - laissez faire not working.

Card 3

Front

Introduction - Factors

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Introduction - Line of Argument

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

The Young - School Meals Knowledge

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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