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What are the conditions for this reaction? RCl + NH3 => RNH3 + HCl
Ethanol solvent, warm solution
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What are the conditions for this reaction? Halogenoalkane => Alcohol
H2O/NaOH, reflux
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What word describes the conversion of amines into diazo compounds?
Diazotisation
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Will different R-groups on alpha-amino acids effect the isoelectric point?
Yes
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What can poly(lactic acid) be made from and why is it a useful polymer?
Corn starch - it is a biodegradable polymer - can be used for packaging, compost bags, disposable tableware
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Describe the conditions for the hydrolysis of polypeptides.
Acid => heat, reflux, 6moldm^-3 HCl for 24h; Alkali => 100 degrees, NaOH(aq)
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Describe the conditions for the hydrolysis of polyesters.
Hot (aq) acid or hot (aq) alkali - acid is slower - with water, reflux. Acid is reversible, alkali is non-reversible (saponification).
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Describe the conditions for the hydrolysis of polyamides.
Hot (aq) acid or hot (aq) alkali - acid is slower - with water
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What is poly(glycol acid) made of and what can it be used for?
Sugar cane and unripe grapes, stitches
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What can plastics be made from?
Potato starch and cellulose
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In a gas chromatograph, what is the area under the graph proportional to?
The amount of the compound in the sample
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Name a solvent used for NMR and why?
CDCl3 - unreactive, volatile and so easily removed from sample, no peak
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What is nitrobenzene used for?
Explosives, pharmaceuticals, dyes
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What is phenol used for?
Paints, plastics, disinfectants, antiseptics.
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What are natural sources of arenas?
Crude oil and coal
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Where are natural sources of benzene found?
Volcanoes, forest fires
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How does increasing the length of a hydrocarbon chain in an alcohol affect solubility in water and why?
Hchain is non-polar and does not interact with H2O, disrupts the hydrogen bonding network, decreases solubility
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In a triglyceride, what does this mean 16:2 (6,3)?
16 carbons, 2 double C=C bonds, position of bonds
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Why are trans fats harmful?
Behave like saturated fats, increasing LDL concentration in the body
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Why are cis fatty acids liquids?
Cannot pack closely together (found mainly in plants)
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How is biodiesel made?
Transesterification - methanol/ethanol + triglyceride + Na/KOH catalyst => glycerol + biodiesel. Glycerol can be used for pharmaceuticals or cosmetics, improving atom economy.
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What is a natural source of biodiesel?
Rapeseed oil
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the conditions for this reaction? Halogenoalkane => Alcohol

Back

H2O/NaOH, reflux

Card 3

Front

What word describes the conversion of amines into diazo compounds?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Will different R-groups on alpha-amino acids effect the isoelectric point?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What can poly(lactic acid) be made from and why is it a useful polymer?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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