Language Acquisition

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Articulator
any of the vocal organs above the larynx, including the tongue, lips, teeth, and hard palate
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Acclimatisation:
The process in which an child adjusts to a gradual change in its environment e.g. language
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• Babbling
The production of short vowel/consonant combinations by a baby acquiring language
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• Child-directed speech (CDS):
The way that caregivers talk to children - usually in simplified and/or exaggerated language
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• Cooing:
The earliest sounds children are able to make as they are experimenting with moving their lips and tongue.
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• Critical Period Hypothesis
A theory popularised by Lenneberg (1967), which states that if a child does not have any linguistic interaction before the ages of 5-6, their language development will be severely limited.
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• Language acquisition device (LAD):
The innate ability of children acquiring language to take in and use the grammatical rules of the language they hear, according to Chomsky (1965).
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• Language acquisition support system (LASS):
The system of support from caregivers to children that helps them to acquire language and become sociable, according to Bruner (1983).
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• Non-verbal communication
Any method of communication that isn’t words, e.g. gestures, facial expressions, body language and tone of voice.
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• Phonemic contraction
When a baby stops making certain sounds, and just makes the sounds it hears from the language its caregivers use. This happens at about 10 months.
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• Phonemic expansion
When a baby starts to make lots of different sounds in the babbling stage. This occurs before phonemic expansion.
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• Proto-word:
A combination of words that a child uses that actually contains meaning, rather then just being a random utterance like cooing or babbling
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• Telegraphic Stage
The stage of language acquisition at which children begin to create three or four word utterances containing mainly subjects, verbs, objects and complements
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• Under extension
When a child uses words in a very restricted/ narrower meaning than what they have. E.g. Only my dog is a dog.
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• Overextension
When children give words a much wider meaning that what they should have. E.g. All men become ‘Daddy’.
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• Zone of Proximal Development
Vygotsky’s (1978) theory that when caregivers help children with verbal responses, they provide a model that the child can copy and apply when they’re in other situations.
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• Consonant vowel combinations
Eg ‘Ga’ ‘da’
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• Reduplicated monosyllables
: E.g ‘Dada’
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• Holophrase/ Holophrastic stage
In language acquisition, a single word that expresses a complete idea, eg. Ball, which could mean a child wants it, or has found it, etc. Caregivers need contextual clues to interpret holophrases
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• Reduplicated babbling
Consists of repeated syllables consisting of consonant and vowel sounds such as ‘da da da’.
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• Non-reduplicated babbling
Consists of mixed syllabled such as ‘ka-ba-du-ba’.a
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• Instrumental:
: Used to fulfil a need – concerned with food, drink and comfor
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• Regulatory:
Used to influence the behaviour of others – extension of the above. Persuading, commanding, requesting.
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• Interactional:
Used to develop social relationships and ease interaction – phatic talk
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• Personal:
Used to express personal preferences and identity - the ‘here I am language’
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• Representational
Used to exchange information – relaying or requesting
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• Heuristic
Used to learn and explore the environment – Q&A or running commentaries
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• Imaginative:
: Used to explore imagination – play and storytelling
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• Labelling:
Naming an object, person or experience
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• Repeating:
Echoing something spoken by an adult
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• Answering:
Giving a direct response to another’s utterance
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• Requesting action:
Demanding food, drink, toy or assistance
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• Calling:
Attracting attention by shouting
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• Greeting:
Saying ‘hello’ etc
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• Protesting
Objecting to requests
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• Practising:
Using and repeating language when no adult is present.
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• Rescorla:
Rescorla said that overextension can be divided into 3 types: Categorical, Analogical and Statement
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• Categorical:
: A word for one member of a clear category is extended to other members of the same family. E.g. Child associates that all boys are brothers and has extended the meaning.
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• Analogical:
A word for one object is extended to another object which is not in the same clear category, but which bears some similarity, either physical or functional, to the original object. E.g. saying ‘cat’ for a woolly scarf.
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• Statement:
These are like one word phrases. Children aren’t labelling an item but making a statement in relation to it. E.g. When saying ‘Mummy’ when a child see’s their Mother’s coat.
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• Study of overextension
Study done by Eve Clark in 1920. A child uses ‘bebe’ when referring to his reflection in a mirror, to refer to a photograph of himself, to refer to all pictures, to refer to all books with pictures, to refer to all books. Before he eventually refined
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The process in which an child adjusts to a gradual change in its environment e.g. language

Back

Acclimatisation:

Card 3

Front

The production of short vowel/consonant combinations by a baby acquiring language

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The way that caregivers talk to children - usually in simplified and/or exaggerated language

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The earliest sounds children are able to make as they are experimenting with moving their lips and tongue.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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