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enthalpy change
A measure of heat energy given out or taken in when a chemical or physical change occurs at constant pressure
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Half equation
An equation for a redox reaction which considers just one of the species involved and shows explicitly the electrons transferred to or from it
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hydrogen bonding
A type of intermolecular force in which a hydrogen atom interacts with a more electronegative atom with a partially negative charge
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ionic bonding
Describes a chemical bond in which an electron or electrons are transferred from one atom to another, resulting in the formation of oppositely charged ions with electrostatic forces of attraction between them
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ionisation energy
The energy required to remove a mole of electrons from a mole of gaseous atoms
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Electron pair repulsion theory
A theory which explains the shapes of simple molecules by assuming that pairs of electrons around a central atom repel each other and take up positions as far away as possible from each other in space.
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Electronegativity
The power of an atom to attract the electrons in a covalent bond
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Electrostatic force
The forces of attraction and repulsion between electrically charged particles
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empirical formula
The simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element in a compound
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End point
The point in a titration when the volume of reactant added just causes the colour of the indicator to change
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Bond dissociation enthalpy
the enthalpy change required to break a covalent bond with all species in a gaseous state.
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calorimeter
An instrument for measuring the heat changes that accompany chemical reactions
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catalyst
A substance that alters the rate of a chemical reaction but is not used up in the reaction
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co ordinate/dative bond
Covalent bonding in which both the electrons in the bond come from one of the atoms in the bond. It is also called a a coordinate bond
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Covalent bond
Describes a chemical bond in a pair of electrons are shared between two atoms
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Delocalised
Describes electrons that are spread over several atoms and help to bond them together.
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Dipole-dipole forces
An intermolecular force that results from attraction between molecules with permanent dipoles.
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Disproportionation
Describes a redox reaction in which the oxidation number of some atoms of a particular element increases and that of other atoms of the same element decreases.
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Dynamic equilibrium
A situation in which the composition of a constant concentration reaction mixture does not change because both forward and backward reactions
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electronegativity
The power of an atom to attract the electrons in a colvalent bond
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Activation energy
The minimum energy that a particle needs in order to react the energy (enthalpy) difference between the reactants and the transition states
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Atom economy
This describes the efficiency of a chemical reaction by comparing the total number of atoms in the product with the total number of atoms in the starting material. Atom economy= mass of desired of product/total mass of reactants x 100
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Atomic orbital
A region of space around an atomic nucleus where there is a high probability of finding an electron
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Avogadros constant
The total number of particles in a mole of a substance
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Base peak
The peak representing the ion of greatest abundance (the tallest peak) in a mass spectrum
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Isomers
molecules that have the same molecular formula but whose atoms are arranged differently
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ketone
An organic compound with the general formula R2CO in which there is a c=c double bond
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molecular ion
In mass spectrometry this is a molecule of the sample which has been ionised but which has not broken up during its flight through the instrument
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nucleons
Protons and neutrons the sub atomic particles found in the nucleus
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oxidising agent
A reagent that oxidises (removes electrons from) another species whilst itself is reduced
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reducing agent
A reagent that reduces (donates electrons) to another species whilst itself is oxidised
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polar
Describes a molecule in which the charge is not symmetrically distributed so one area is slightly positively charged and one area is slightly negatively charged
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spectator ion
Ions that are unchanged during a chemical reaction that is they take no part in the chemical reaction
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stereoisomerism
Isomers with the same molecular formula and the same structure but a different position of atoms in space
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van der waals
a type of intermolecular force that is caused by instantaneous dipoles and acts between all atoms and molecules.
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Card 2

Front

An equation for a redox reaction which considers just one of the species involved and shows explicitly the electrons transferred to or from it

Back

Half equation

Card 3

Front

A type of intermolecular force in which a hydrogen atom interacts with a more electronegative atom with a partially negative charge

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Describes a chemical bond in which an electron or electrons are transferred from one atom to another, resulting in the formation of oppositely charged ions with electrostatic forces of attraction between them

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The energy required to remove a mole of electrons from a mole of gaseous atoms

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Preview of the back of card 5
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