KEY TERMS - COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: MEMORY

  • Created by: KarenL78
  • Created on: 22-07-17 13:22
MULTI-STORE MODEL (MSM)
AN EXPLANTION OF MEMORY THAT SEES INFORMATION FLOWING THROUGH A SERIES OF STORAGE SYSTEMS
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SENSORY REGISTER (SR)
A SHORT DURATION STORE HOLDING IMPRESSIONS OF INFORMATION RECEIVED BY THE SENSES.
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SHORT-TERM MEMORY (STM)
A TEMPORARY STORE HOLDING SMALL AMOUNTS OF INFORMATION FOR BRIEF PERIODS.
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LONG-TERM MEMORY (LTM)
A PERMANENT STORE HOLDING LIMITLESS AMOUNTS OF INFORMATION FOR LONG PERIODS.
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CODING
THE MEANS BY WHICH INFORMATION IS REPRESENTED IN THE MEMORY.
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CAPACITY
THE AMOUNT OF INFORMATION THAT CAN BE STORED AT A GIVEN TIME.
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DURATION
THE LENGTH OF TIME INFORMATION REMAINS WITHIN STORAGE.
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CHUNKING
METHOD OF INCREASING STM CAPACITY BY GROUPING INFORMATION INTO LARGER UNITS.
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RETRIEVAL
THE RECALL OF STORED MEMORIES
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MEMORY
THE MENTAL CAPACITY TO ENCODE, STORE & RETRIEVE INFORMATION.
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WORKING MEMORY MODEL (WMM)
AN EXPLANATION THAT SEES STM AS AN ACTIVE STORE HOLDING SEVERAL PIECES OF INFORMATION SIMULTANEOUSLY
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CENTRAL EXECUTIVE (CE)
COMPONENT OF THE WMM THAT OVERSEES & COORDINATES THE COMPONENTS OF WM.
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PHONOLOGICAL LOOP (PL)
SLAVE SYSTEM OF THE WMM THAT DEALS WITH AUDITORY INFORMATION
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VISUO-SPATIAL SKETCHPAD (VSS)
SLAVE SYSTEM OF WMM THAT DEALS WITH VISUAL INFORMATION AND THE PHYSICAL RELATIONSHIP OF ITEMS TO ONE ANOTHER
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EPISODIC BUFFER (EB)
SLAVE SYSTEM OF THE WMM THAT SERVES AS A TEMPORARY STORE OF INTEGRATED INFORMATION FROM THE CE, PL, VSS AND LTM
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PRIMARY ACCOUSTIC STORE (PAS)
PART OF THE PL, STORES WORDS RECENTLY HEARD.
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ARTICULATORY PROCESS (AP)
PART OF THE PL, ALLOWS SUB-VOCAL REPETITION OF INFO WITHIN THE STORE.
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VISUAL CACHE (VC)
PART OF THE VSS, STORES INFORMATION ABOUT FORM AND COLOUR.
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INNER SCRIBE (IS)
PART OF THE VSS, STORES INFORMATION ABOUT THE PHYSICAL RELATIONSHIP OF ITEMS
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EPISODIC MEMORY
TYPE OF EXPLICIT MEMORY THAT GIVES INDIVIDUALS AN AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL RECORD OF PERSONAL EXPERIENCES E.G. WHEN THEIR BIRTHDAY IS OR THE BIRTH OF THEIR CHILDREN.
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SEMANTIC MEMORY
TYPE OF EXPLICIT MEMORY THAT CONTAINS ALL KNOWLEDGE - FACTS, CONCEPTS, MEANINGS & UNDERSTANDING - AN INDIVIDUAL HAS LEARNED.
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PROCEDURAL MEMORY
TYPE OF IMPLICIT MEMORY THAT ENABLES INDIVIDUALS TO PERFORM LEARNED TASKS WITH LITTLE CONSCIOUS THOUGHT E.G. RIDING A BIKE.
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FORGETTING
THE FAILURE TO RETRIEVE MEMORIES.
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RETRIEVAL FAILURE
AN EXPLANATION FOR FORGETTING WHEN MATERIAL IS STORED IN THE LTM BUT CANNOT BE CONSCIOUSLY RECALLED DUE TO LACK OF RETRIEVAL CUES TO JOG THE MEMORY.
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INTERFERENCE THEORY (IT)
AN EXPLANATION FOR FORGETTING WHEN SIMILAR MATERIAL IS CONFUSED IN RECALL FROM THE LTM.
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PROACTIVE INTERFERENCE
OCCURS WHEN PAST MEMORIES INHIBIT THE ABILITY TO RETAIN NEW MEMORIES.
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RETROACTIVE INTERFERENCE
OCCURS WHEN NEWLY LEARNED INFORMATION INTERFERES WITH RECALL OF PREVIOUSLY LEARNED INFORMATION.
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CUE-DEPENDENT FORGETTING (CDF)
TYPE OF FORGETTING BASED UPON A FAILURE TO RETRIEVE THE PROMPTS THAT TRIGGER RECALL.
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CONTEXT-DEPENDENT FAILURE
FORM OF CDF WHERE RECALL OCCURS IN A DIFFERENT EXTERNAL SETTING TO CODING.
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STATE-DEPENDENT FAILURE
FORM OF CDF WHERE RECALL OCCURS IN A DIFFERENT INTERNAL STATE TO CODING.
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EYE-WITNESS TESTIMONY (EWT)
EVIDENCE PROVIDED BY THOSE RECALLING AN EVENT WHO WERE PRESENT WHEN THE THE EVENT TOOK PLACE.
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SCHEMA
READY MADE EXPECTATIONS BASED ON PREVIOUS EXPERIENCES, MOODS, EXISTING KNOWLEDGE CONTEXTS, ATTITUDES AND STEREOTYPES. USED TO MAKE SENSE OF THE WORLDS AND "FILL IN THE GAPS" IN OUR KNOWLEDGE.
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MISLEADING INFORMATION
INFORMATION THAT SUGGESTS A DESIRED RESPONSE.
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POST-EVENT DISCUSSION
INFORMATION ADDED TO A MEMORY AFTER THE EVENT HAS OCCURRED.
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ANXIETY
AN UNPLEASANT STATE OF EMOTIONAL AROUSAL
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COGNITIVE INTERVIEW (CI)
A PROCEDURE FOR POLICE QUESTIONING OF WITNESSES THAT PROMOTES ACCURATE, DETAILED RECALL OF EVENTS.
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STANDARD POLICE INTERVIEW (SPI)
THE ESTABLISHED METHOD OF POLICE QUESTIONING.
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ENHANCED COGNITIVE INTERVIEW (ECI)
AN ADVANCED METHOD OF QUESTIONING WITNESSES THAT OVERCOMES PROBLEMS CAUSED BY INAPPROPRIATE SEQUENCING OF QUESTIONS.
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MODIFIED COGNITIVE INTERVIEW (MCI)
AN AMENDED FORM OF THE CI.
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MNEMONICS
TECHNIQUES THAT PROMOTE MEMORY RECALL.
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ACTIVE PROCESSING
SUBJECTING INFORMATIO TO DEEP AND MEANINGFUL ANALYSIS.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A SHORT DURATION STORE HOLDING IMPRESSIONS OF INFORMATION RECEIVED BY THE SENSES.

Back

SENSORY REGISTER (SR)

Card 3

Front

A TEMPORARY STORE HOLDING SMALL AMOUNTS OF INFORMATION FOR BRIEF PERIODS.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A PERMANENT STORE HOLDING LIMITLESS AMOUNTS OF INFORMATION FOR LONG PERIODS.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

THE MEANS BY WHICH INFORMATION IS REPRESENTED IN THE MEMORY.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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