Memory psychology complete revision sheet

  • Created by: emily9383
  • Created on: 16-03-19 21:14
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  • Memory - psychology
    • multi - store model of memory          ( Atkinson and Shiffrin(1968))
      • sensory register
        • coding = modality specific. Research by Crowder (1993) found that sensory info is coded into different stores
          • capacity = large. research by Sperling (1960) found this.
            • Duration = limited. presents issues when researching as info leaves too quickly.
      • short term memory
        • Coding = visually, acoustically and semantically
          • research by Baddeley (1966)
          • Capacity = limited. Miller's magic number. many people can store 7+/-2 words.
            • capacity can be increased by chunking the info
            • Duration = limited (30 sec) can be extended with repetition
              • research by Peterson and Peterson (1959)
      • long term memory
        • coding = semantically. proven by Baddeley (1966)
          • capacity = potentially unlimited. info can be lost due to decay, not space.
            • several limitless stores proven by Clive Wearing
            • Duration =     potentially    forever  research evidence by Bahrick et al (1975)
    • working memory model explains STM (Baddeley and Hitch (1974))
      • Central executive - responsible for sensory info + directing info to slave systems. CAPACITY = limited CODES = sensory
        • visuo-spatial sketchpad - visual + spatial info ( images/ environment) CAPACITY = limited CODING = visually
          • inner scribe - spatial movement + reherses info from visual cache to central executive
          • visual cache - stores visual info on form and colour
        • phonological loop - speech based info CAPACITY + DURATION  = limited CODES = acoustically
          • phonological store  - inner ear stores acoustically coded items
          • articulatory control process - inner voice allows rehersal of items stored in PS
        • episodic buffer - binds info together from different components to chunks CAPACITY = limited CODING = visual + auditory
    • types of long term memory
      • explicit memory = conscious recall
        • semantic memory = contains all knowledge + facts that an individual haas learned
          • strength of coding relates to degree of processing. can also be underpinned by episodic mem. they transition to semantic mem.
            • hippocampus involved. coding mainly associated with frontal + temporal lobes
              • key study by Vicari et al (2007)
        • episodic memory = events + personal experiences.
          • strength of episodic memory influenced by emotions and context. episodic mem also helps differentiate real + imagined events
            • episodic mem = prefrontal cortex (coding). strengthening of mem = neocortex. hippocampus creates a mem of the episode
              • Key study by Tulving (1989)
      • explicit memory = unconscious recall
        • procedural memory = motor skills and muscle memory. occur in early life through repetition + practise
          • involved in language. Associated with the motor cortex, cerebellum and prefrontal cortex. it doesn't need the hippocampus to function
    • explanations for forgetting
      • Retrieval Failure
        • Cue dependent forgetting - info stored in the LTM cant be assessed. recall dependent on retrieval cues (external or internal (emotional state))
          • Tulving (1973) proposed the encoding specificity principle. effectiveness of retrieval cue depends on: how much  the cue is made of, depth of processing.
          • Context - dependent forgetting - outer environment different from where info was originally learned
            • research by Abernethy (1940) + Godden and Baddeley (1975)
              • category headings act as retrieval cues (Tulving + Pearlstone (1966))
                • research by Overton (1972) + Darley et al (1973)
            • State - dependent forgetting - physical/ emotional state different from when learned
              • research by Overton (1972) + Darley et al (1973)
      • inference theory
        • proactive inference = forwards in time. past mems inhibit ability to retain new mems
          • key study by Schmidt et al (2000)
            • retroactive interference = backwards in time. new info interferes with previously learned info
        • retroactive interference = backwards in time. new info interferes with previously learned info
    • factors affecting accuracy of eyewitness testimony
      • stages in EWT : coding, storage (mems can be distorted) , retrieval (accuracy effected by Qs asked)
        • misleading information - leading Qs can suggest a certain answer (they activate a certain schema)
          • post event discussion can affect accuracy. eyewitnesses discuss together.
            • affect of schemas on EWT = Bartlett (1932)
            • effects of misleading info on EWT = Loftus + Palmer (1974)
            • Loftus (1979) found memory not distorted by blatantly incorrect info. more influenced by subtle + plausible info
            • post event discussion research by Gabbert et al (2003)
      • anxiety can also affect accuracy of EWT
        • weapon focus effect can make individuals forget outer details + look at the weapon. increase anxiety. diverts attention away from appearance of culprit.
          • research by Christianson + Hubinette (1993) suggested emotional arousal improves recall
            • Yerkes - Dodson Law suggests anxiety promote accurate recall
        • research into anxiety by Loftus et al (1987)
        • Anxiety research by Loftus + Burns (1982)
        • Anxiety research by Yuille + Cutshall (1986)
    • improving accuracy of eyewitness testimony
      • Fisher + Geiselman (1992) created the cognitive interview.
        • revolves around interviewee. and Qs are not pre determined. they make sure that the interviewers are interview trained.
      • 1. mental reinstatement of context = recreate environment  2. report everything as memories are inter connected
        • 3. change order of recall = start from most memorable situation/point 4. change perspective = pretend to be another to reduce the effect of schemas

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