Interspecific interactions-not competition

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Define: symbiosis
Interaction process between two or more biological species
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What is mutualism?
Where interactions benefit both a consumer and a resource
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Why is parasitism not mutualistic?
The host usually does not appear to benefit- there is a negative impact on prey dynamics
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What is relatively loose mutualism?
Where species could live apart from one another but benefit from being partners
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What is tight mutualism?
Where two species can no longer exist on their own- they depend upon each other for their survival.
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What mutualism was tested by Inoye and Taylor 1979?
Acacia (plant) + Pseudomyrmex (Ant) in Central America
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Describe how acacia and ant species benefit from being partners.
Ants are provided with hollow thorns for nesting in; protein rich material-Beltian bodies; extra-floral nectaries-droplets of sugar not needed by the plant. Plant is protected from herbivores e.g. caterpillas and other competitors of ants
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How did Inoye and Taylor test this mutualism? What happened?
Experimental testing-removed ants. 430% increase in Phytophagous insects. Leaf life declined by 50%. 85% increase in seeds destroyed by insects.
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How do cleaner fish and their customers benefit from mutualism?
Cleaner fish-receive food. Customers- Get dead skin and parasites removed.
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What happened when cleaner fish were removed?
Increase in skin disease in customers= population decline.
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How does the mutualism of leaf-cutter ants and fungi work?
Leaf-cutter ants bring back leaves- dont eat but feed to fungal gardens in nest. Fungus provides secretions which the ants feed on. When queens leave to form a new nest they take a culture of the fungus with them in their gut.
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Why is sea temperature increase such a threat to coral polyps?
At >28 degrees celsius- bleaching occurs. Zooanthellae leave corals. Corals no longer have additional food source provided by photosynthesis in algae. Corals die.
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What relationship do humans and apple trees have if sustainable farming is carried out?
Commensalism- humans benefit from food source, and other ecosystem services. Trees are not harmed.
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Why do organisms with different life histories thrive in different environments?
Some environments= predictable and relatively consistent in abiotic factors. Others=unpredictable with fluctuating and random changes. Different organisms will be selected for each type.
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What are the differences between the populations of "r" and "k" selected species?
"r"-Boom/bust populations- grow very rapidly (free from competition) so popln =very variable. "k"=numbers=constant + populations crowded.Intense competition.
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How does energy allocation compare overall between "r" and "k" species?
"r"=Little competition=no need for lots of growth-small. Energy used for reaching maturity and reproducing quickly. Maximizes reproductive traits. "k"- maximize survival traits-lots of energy to growth. deferred reproduction. fewer offspring.
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Give examples of "r" and "k" selected species.
"r"-Weeds, Poppy, Shepherd's Purse. "k"-Elephants, Humans, Oak.
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What is fecundity?
The number of offspring you produce in your lifetime
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Why is there a common negative correlation between life history traits of survival and fecundity?
Because only a set amount of resources are given over a lifetime to invest..
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In which environments are "k" selected species selected?
Predictable environments- Because there are few disturbances in the environment- populations are large so energy is invested in additional survival traits e.g chemical defences to make individuals better competitors for a limited amount of resources.
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In which environments do 'r' selected species thrive?
Unpredictable environments- young have no competition in a disturbed environment- can grow rapidly and thrive- do not need to invest in additional defences etc
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Holly has prickles which make it hard to eat. What type of species is this?
k selected
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Fire weed thrives after....wait for it...forest fires (shocker). What type of selection is this?
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Card 2


What is mutualism?


Where interactions benefit both a consumer and a resource

Card 3


Why is parasitism not mutualistic?


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Card 4


What is relatively loose mutualism?


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Card 5


What is tight mutualism?


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