What is the principle of competitive exclusion?
Where different species require the use of the same resources and so will compete until one loses (it is highly unlikely the two will be equally successful).
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What are the two mechanisms of competition between individuals?
Exploitation competition. Interference competition.
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Describe: exploitative competition.
When individuals deplete or remove a resource- other individuals then cannot gain that resource themselves. The individuals don't have to come into contact with one another.
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What is interference competiton?
When individuals physically prevent access to a resource for other individuals. This can include physical violence as well as territorial displays.
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What is the difference between intra and inter-specific competition?
Intra= between individuals of the same species. Inter=between individuals of different species.
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How can you tell which species is the most successful competitor in intespecific competition?
Abundance, reproductive success, mortality, life-span etc.
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Do red and grey squirrel compete or resources in the UK?
Range of grey squirrels increased since introduction + range of red squirrels decreased. But reds prefer coniferous woodland + conifer seeds. Greys prefer deciduous wood, seeds and nuts. Reds-86% time: trees. Greys-70% time: ground. Different niches?
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If competition is not to blame what could explain the range changes of the red and grey squirrels?
Parapox? (similar to Myxomatosis) Both are susceptible to the disease. Greys could be a vector and could have spread it.
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Describe Joseph Connell's experiment used to show competition on a British rocky shore.
Zonation. Chthamalus= higher than Semibalanus. C=smaller than S- worse habitat?. Why occupy? S outcompetes C? S removed. Few weeks later- C juveniles on lower rock.- can occupy better habitat lower down. But then S juveniles move back in.
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How does realized niche and fundamental niche relate to niche compression?
Fundamental niches- the habitat a species would occupy in the absence of competition. Niches are narrowed to realized niches- "competitive refuge".
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How many dimensions does a niche have?
Many- niche has an n-dimensional hypervolume. There are many ways for species to reduce their niches to avoid overlap.
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How does niche compression relate to character displacement? Example?
Differences in realised niches for different populations can lead to morphological changes between the two. Galapagos finches *classic.
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Card 2


What are the two mechanisms of competition between individuals?


Exploitation competition. Interference competition.

Card 3


Describe: exploitative competition.


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is interference competiton?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is the difference between intra and inter-specific competition?


Preview of the front of card 5
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