Information-processing theories and classical and operant conditioning

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  • Created by: millie
  • Created on: 04-04-15 19:06
What do the information-processing approaches to intelligence explore?
The cognitive processes associated with intelligence and less traditional forms of intelligence
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What information-processing theory did Sternberg (1988) present?
The triarchic theory of intelligence
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What is Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence?
It addresses the underlying intelligence processes and the three distinct aspects of intelligence: analytical, practical and creative
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What is Analytical Intelligence?
The ability to decide what strategies are needed to overcome a problem and what resources to allocate
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What is Practical Intelligence?
The ability to make a considered response that is dependent on the context where the problem occurs
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What is Creative Intelligence?
Helps an individual identify when a problem is a new one and if there are previous, similar instances that have been experienced that can help solve the problem
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What did Gardner suggest about IQ tests?
That they only measure a small proportion of a person's intelligence without considering all matters of intelligence
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What did Gardner believe about intelligence?
That 8 abilities could count as 'intelligence' as they resolve genuine problems in a particular cultural setting
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What are the 8 different types of intelligence according to Gardner?
Linguistic, spatial, logical-mathematical, musical, bodily kinaesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, natural
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What is linguistic intelligence?
Ability to make use of spoken language and the mechanisms underlying it
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What is logical-mathematical intelligence?
The ability to reason mathematically and use abstract thought
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What is musical intelligence?
Musical ability, including the creation and appreciation of music and the underlying components, such as rhythm and pitch
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What is bodily-kinaesthetic intelligence?
The ability to control bodily movements
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What is interpersonal intelligence?
The ability to understand people's feelings, beliefs and intentions
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What is intrapersonal intelligence?
The ability to understand one's own feelings and motivations
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What is natural intelligence?
The ability to read, understand and act on the natural world
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What does Gardner believe about his 8 identified intelligences?
No two people possess entirely the same profile of intelligences
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To identify whether a specific ability is sufficiently clear enough to be regarded as an 'intelligence', what did he come up with?
He proposed multiple criteria: neuropsychological evidence, existence of individuals with exceptional talent, a distinct developmental history and research evidence
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What is an example of the criteria, "existence of individuals with exceptional talent"?
Mozart could create music before he could read, suggests that the neural systems involved in musical intelligences must be separate form those involved in language processing
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What support is there for Gardner's multiple intelligence idea?
Autistic Savants - lacking in social intelligence. Though lacking in general abilities, they can show 1 or 2 abilities where they outperform non-autistic people
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What is an example of an Autustic Savant?
Stephen Wiltshire has photographic memory for drawing but has extreme social & linguistic intelligence deficits, has IQ of 52
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How does the evidence of Autistic Savants support Gardner's theory?
Shows these individuals have higher abilities in particular intelligences than other intelligences,therefore gives evidence that individuals have range of information-processing intelligences
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What empirical support is there for Gardner's multiple intelligence theory?
Douglas et al. (2008) - in comparison to direct instruction, teaching methods concentrating on development of multiple intelligences increased student’s academic, social and emotional wellbeing
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What is an issue with Gardner's multiple intelligence theory?
It's culturally biased - Research has shown some intelligences are if higher value in some cultures than others e.g in China, math intelligence is highly valued, kinaesthetic is not (Chan, 2004)
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What is classical conditioning?
Learning through association
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How did Pavlov demonstrate classical conditioning?
Dog sees food (UCS) and salivates (UCR). Hears bell (NS) and does not salivate. Pavlov rings bell before food, dog associates bell with food after numerous trials, dog now salivates (CR) when hearing the bell ring (CS)
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When is effective conditioning unlikely to occur?
When the pairing of the NS and the UCS is not precise e.g too long a delay or too short
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What is extinction in relation to conditioning?
Where the CS and CR association doesn't last long once the UCS is removed because CS doesn't now doesn't predict the UCS
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When is extinction likely to occur?
When there have been too many trials without NS predicting the appearance of the UCS
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Why is extinction not the same as forgetting?
If the CS and UCS are paired together again in the future, the association between them is made quicker and this is called spontaneous recovery
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Who looked at the role of classical conditioning in animals?
Garcia et al.
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What did Garcia et al. do in their study?
Taste aversion study with wolves & coyotes. Animals conditioned to avoid certain food. Laced mutton with toxic substance & sheepskin, gave to wolves/coyotes. Animals attacked mutton but their CR to toxic substance led to them retreating. cont...
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Garcia et al. study cont.
Then exposed to real sheep, but did not attack. This shows that a CS paired with a CR can change real world behaviour
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How can classical conditioning be shown among captive dolphins?
For captive dolphins, food & eating (UCS) nearly always occur when humans are present so humans become CS because they predict food. So dolphins strongly associate food and humans
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What is a negative of dolphins making a strong association between human presence and food?
If released, dolphins may be in trouble as they're conditioned thinking only human presence leads to food
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What does this discovery of classical conditioning in dolphins show us?
It is important to teach compound conditioning e.g. only having a hand signal that results in food in presence of humans
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What is operant conditioning?
Learning through reinforcement - based on theory that a pleasant consequence is likely to lead to the behaviour being repeated in the future
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What is crucial in operant conditioning and why?
The time interval between response (behaviour) and reinforcement - conditioning is more effective when reinforcement follows response immediately
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What is a variable-ratio schedule?
Reinforcement schedule where a response is reinforced after an unpredictable number of responses
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Why is it good to have a variable-ratio schedule?
Creates high rate of responding as person/animal know they could be rewarded but not when they could be
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What are good examples of rewards based on variable-ratio schedule?
Gambling and lottery games
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What are the aims of positive and negative reinforcement?
They increase the probability of the response that precedes them
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What does positive reinforcement involve?
The addition of something
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What does negative reinforcement involve?
The removal of something
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What are the aims of positive and negative punishment?
To decrease the probability of the response that precedes it
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What is involved in positive punishment?
Adding an unpleasant consequence (e.g. pain) preceding a behaviour
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What is involved in negative punishment?
Removing something that is pleasant
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What is Token Economy?
System of behaviour modification based on systematic positive reinforcement of target behaviour
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How does Token Economy relate to operate conditioning?
They use the principles of operant conditioning to apply to humans to improve human behaviour
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How does Token Economy work?
Tokens awarded for good behaviour, taken away for bad behaviour. Token can be used later for something more desirable
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When has the power of operant conditioning been applied to real life?
When trying to get people to replace unhealthy behaviours with healthy one. Research shows operant techniques helped people to avoid obesity & quit smoking
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Who did research on mating behaviour in cowbirds?
West and King
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What did West and King find in their research?
Cowbirds lay eggs in other birds' nests so young males do not hear songs of their own species in early life. Use operant conditioning later through using song patterns to attract females.
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West and King's findings cont.
When female responds with wing stroke display, male increases use of that mating call. Male then eliminates using other songs that have no effect on female as does not provide reproductive benefit
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What does West and Kings findings on cowbirds show us?
How animals change their behaviours after receiving positive reinforcement for certain action
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Who demonstrated operant conditioning with pigeons?
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What did Skinner do in his experiment?
Skinner's box = Pigeon placed in box, had to make single response to receive reward for food. Moved around & accidentally pressed lever. Food then released, reinforced behaviour for next trial
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What is a debate about the approach that operant conditioning and classical conditioning take?
Reductionist- try to reduce complex behaviour of learning to stimulus response associations = over-simplification. Does not make them wrong, but by ignoring other factors involved means they do no provide full account of complex behaviour of learning
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What is one other problem with operant & classical conditioning?
Hard to know whether animals learning via reinforcement or association. e.g. pigeon in box, who we think is learning via positive reinforcement, could have made association between pressing lever & receiving food
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Card 2


What information-processing theory did Sternberg (1988) present?


The triarchic theory of intelligence

Card 3


What is Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence?


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Card 4


What is Analytical Intelligence?


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Card 5


What is Practical Intelligence?


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